ࡱ> 3 =bjbjCC "!!9l.O.O.O8fO<P Qv0g0g0g0g0gJ.$ 6"0g0g""60g0gK"0g0g"Fd0gQ `74FHBG.OJla0$55Air Sealing Improvement Protocol DRAFT INCLUDEPICTURE "tempFile.bmp" \* MERGEFORMAT   TOC \o "1-9" Air Sealing Improvement Protocol  PAGEREF _Toc133904696 \h 1 1 Why air seal?  PAGEREF _Toc133904697 \h 8 1.1 Benefits list  PAGEREF _Toc133904698 \h 8 1.1.1 Speaking points for customer benefits  PAGEREF _Toc133904699 \h 8 Additional benefits list for green clients  PAGEREF _Toc133904700 \h 9 1.1.2 Contractor benefits  PAGEREF _Toc133904701 \h 9 Link to fewer complaints about drafts  PAGEREF _Toc133904702 \h 9 Internal link to Better control of moisture  PAGEREF _Toc133904703 \h 9 Reduced ice dams  PAGEREF _Toc133904704 \h 9 Link to Toolbase  PAGEREF _Toc133904705 \h 9 Link to Energy Star  PAGEREF _Toc133904706 \h 9 Link to Oak Ridge  PAGEREF _Toc133904707 \h 9 1.2 Driving forces creating air leakage  PAGEREF _Toc133904708 \h 9 1.2.1 Link to  PAGEREF _Toc133904709 \h 10 1.3 Energy savings calculation  PAGEREF _Toc133904710 \h 10 1.3.1 Link to LBNL Home Energy Saver  PAGEREF _Toc133904711 \h 10 1.3.2 Measuring air leakage  PAGEREF _Toc133904712 \h 10 1.3.3 Link to Home Energy  PAGEREF _Toc133904713 \h 10 2 Where do you improve?  PAGEREF _Toc133904714 \h 10 2.1 Attic  PAGEREF _Toc133904715 \h 11 2.1.1 Finished  PAGEREF _Toc133904716 \h 11 2.1.2 Unfinished  PAGEREF _Toc133904717 \h 11 2.1.3 Attic Bypasses  PAGEREF _Toc133904718 \h 11 2.2 Walls  PAGEREF _Toc133904719 \h 11 2.2.1 To outside  PAGEREF _Toc133904720 \h 11 2.2.2 To attics  PAGEREF _Toc133904721 \h 12 2.2.3 To garages and porches  PAGEREF _Toc133904722 \h 12 2.3 Kneewalls  PAGEREF _Toc133904723 \h 12 2.4 Basement  PAGEREF _Toc133904724 \h 13 2.4.1 Stone  PAGEREF _Toc133904725 \h 13 2.4.2 Concrete  PAGEREF _Toc133904726 \h 13 2.4.3 Block  PAGEREF _Toc133904727 \h 13 2.4.4 Other  PAGEREF _Toc133904728 \h 14 2.5 Garage  PAGEREF _Toc133904729 \h 14 2.5.1 Attached  PAGEREF _Toc133904730 \h 14 2.5.2 Separate  PAGEREF _Toc133904731 \h 14 2.6 Crawlspace  PAGEREF _Toc133904732 \h 14 2.6.1 Sealed  PAGEREF _Toc133904733 \h 14 2.6.2 Vented  PAGEREF _Toc133904734 \h 14 2.7 Windows  PAGEREF _Toc133904735 \h 14 2.7.1 Basement  PAGEREF _Toc133904736 \h 14 2.7.2 Finished space  PAGEREF _Toc133904737 \h 15 2.8 Doors  PAGEREF _Toc133904738 \h 15 2.8.1 Basement  PAGEREF _Toc133904739 \h 15 2.8.2 Finished space  PAGEREF _Toc133904740 \h 15 2.8.3 Doors to attics  PAGEREF _Toc133904741 \h 15 3 What do you improve?  PAGEREF _Toc133904742 \h 16 3.1 Electrical  PAGEREF _Toc133904743 \h 16 3.2 Plumbing  PAGEREF _Toc133904744 \h 16 3.3 Windows  PAGEREF _Toc133904745 \h 16 3.4 Ducts  PAGEREF _Toc133904746 \h 16 3.5 Heating Pipes  PAGEREF _Toc133904747 \h 16 3.6 Sill  PAGEREF _Toc133904748 \h 16 3.7 Attic hatch  PAGEREF _Toc133904749 \h 17 3.8 Whole house fan  PAGEREF _Toc133904750 \h 17 3.9 Recessed lights  PAGEREF _Toc133904751 \h 17 3.10 Chimney Chase  PAGEREF _Toc133904752 \h 17 3.11 Plumbing chase  PAGEREF _Toc133904753 \h 18 3.12 Outlets  PAGEREF _Toc133904754 \h 18 3.13 Switch plates  PAGEREF _Toc133904755 \h 18 3.14 Top plates  PAGEREF _Toc133904756 \h 18 3.15 Changes in framing  PAGEREF _Toc133904757 \h 18 3.16 Party walls  PAGEREF _Toc133904758 \h 18 3.17 Other  PAGEREF _Toc133904759 \h 18 3.18 EPA illustration  PAGEREF _Toc133904760 \h 18 4 How do you improve?  PAGEREF _Toc133904761 \h 18 4.1 Visual training resources  PAGEREF _Toc133904762 \h 18 4.1.1 Southface Air Sealing Poster  PAGEREF _Toc133904763 \h 18 4.2 Strategic dense pack cellulose  PAGEREF _Toc133904764 \h 18 4.2.1 Installation standards  PAGEREF _Toc133904765 \h 18 4.2.2 Installation task descriptions  PAGEREF _Toc133904766 \h 19 Setup  PAGEREF _Toc133904767 \h 19 Equipment maintenance  PAGEREF _Toc133904768 \h 19 Electrical  PAGEREF _Toc133904769 \h 19 Ladders  PAGEREF _Toc133904770 \h 19 Siding Removal  PAGEREF _Toc133904771 \h 20 Drilling  PAGEREF _Toc133904772 \h 20 Hose and cord deployment  PAGEREF _Toc133904773 \h 20 Blowing  PAGEREF _Toc133904774 \h 20 Attics  PAGEREF _Toc133904775 \h 20 Walls  PAGEREF _Toc133904776 \h 20 Hopper  PAGEREF _Toc133904777 \h 21 Siding replacement  PAGEREF _Toc133904778 \h 21 Clean up  PAGEREF _Toc133904779 \h 21 4.2.3 Link to industry standards  PAGEREF _Toc133904780 \h 21 4.3 One part foam  PAGEREF _Toc133904781 \h 21 4.3.1 Installation standards  PAGEREF _Toc133904782 \h 21 4.3.2 Installation task descriptions  PAGEREF _Toc133904783 \h 22 4.3.3 Link to industry standards  PAGEREF _Toc133904784 \h 22 4.4 Spray foam  PAGEREF _Toc133904785 \h 22 4.4.1 Installation standards  PAGEREF _Toc133904786 \h 22 4.4.2 Installation task descriptions  PAGEREF _Toc133904787 \h 22 4.4.3 Link to industry standards  PAGEREF _Toc133904788 \h 23 4.5 Caulk  PAGEREF _Toc133904789 \h 23 4.5.1 Installation standards  PAGEREF _Toc133904790 \h 23 4.5.2 Link to California Procedures for Proper Caulking and Sealing  PAGEREF _Toc133904791 \h 23 4.5.3 Link to Canadian Wood Council Caulking Information  PAGEREF _Toc133904792 \h 23 4.6 Insulation boards and metal  PAGEREF _Toc133904793 \h 23 4.6.1 Installation standards  PAGEREF _Toc133904794 \h 23 4.6.2 Photo of caulking a foam board in place  PAGEREF _Toc133904795 \h 24 4.7 Plate covers  PAGEREF _Toc133904796 \h 24 4.7.1 Installation standards  PAGEREF _Toc133904797 \h 24 4.8 Weatherstripping  PAGEREF _Toc133904798 \h 24 4.8.1 Door weatherstripping installation standards  PAGEREF _Toc133904799 \h 24 4.8.2 Window weatherstripping installation standards  PAGEREF _Toc133904800 \h 25 5 Quality assurance  PAGEREF _Toc133904801 \h 25 5.1 Visual Checklist  PAGEREF _Toc133904802 \h 25 5.2 Performance tests  PAGEREF _Toc133904803 \h 26 5.2.1 Blower door  PAGEREF _Toc133904804 \h 26 5.2.2 Pressure diagnostics  PAGEREF _Toc133904805 \h 26 5.2.3 IR scan  PAGEREF _Toc133904806 \h 26 6 How do you diagnose, price and sell the improvement?  PAGEREF _Toc133904807 \h 26 6.1 Educating your customer  PAGEREF _Toc133904808 \h 26 6.1.1 Links  PAGEREF _Toc133904809 \h 26 Videos  PAGEREF _Toc133904810 \h 26 Consumer information sheets  PAGEREF _Toc133904811 \h 26 Link to Minnesota Department of Commerce  PAGEREF _Toc133904812 \h 26 EPA Home Sealing  PAGEREF _Toc133904813 \h 26 EPA Home Sealing DIY  PAGEREF _Toc133904814 \h 26 Canadian Energuide for Houses  PAGEREF _Toc133904815 \h 27 6.1.2 Speaking points  PAGEREF _Toc133904816 \h 27 6.2 General base building data  PAGEREF _Toc133904817 \h 27 6.2.1 CFM50 test  PAGEREF _Toc133904818 \h 27 6.2.2 Visual alternative  PAGEREF _Toc133904819 \h 27 6.2.3 Dimension  PAGEREF _Toc133904820 \h 27 6.2.4 Zone type  PAGEREF _Toc133904821 \h 27 6.3 Estimating the improvement  PAGEREF _Toc133904822 \h 27 6.3.1 Savings estimate  PAGEREF _Toc133904823 \h 27 Post CFM 50 Estimated  PAGEREF _Toc133904824 \h 27 Estimated post retrofit air changes  PAGEREF _Toc133904825 \h 27 6.3.2 Quantify the materials that are needed and quantity  PAGEREF _Toc133904826 \h 27 Cellulose  PAGEREF _Toc133904827 \h 27 Tubes of caulk  PAGEREF _Toc133904828 \h 28 Foam  PAGEREF _Toc133904829 \h 28 One part  PAGEREF _Toc133904830 \h 28 Two part  PAGEREF _Toc133904831 \h 28 Weatherstrip  PAGEREF _Toc133904832 \h 28 Insulation board  PAGEREF _Toc133904833 \h 28 Outlet and Switch Plate covers  PAGEREF _Toc133904834 \h 28 Other  PAGEREF _Toc133904835 \h 28 6.3.3 Detailed installer data influencing price  PAGEREF _Toc133904836 \h 28 Location and Number of locations for air sealing  PAGEREF _Toc133904837 \h 29 Access to spaces that will require air sealing  PAGEREF _Toc133904838 \h 29 Head clearance  PAGEREF _Toc133904839 \h 29 Framing layout  PAGEREF _Toc133904840 \h 29 Ventilation required  PAGEREF _Toc133904841 \h 29 Electrical  PAGEREF _Toc133904842 \h 29 Knob and tube  PAGEREF _Toc133904843 \h 29 6.3.4 Incentives available  PAGEREF _Toc133904844 \h 29 Tax  PAGEREF _Toc133904845 \h 29 Rebates  PAGEREF _Toc133904846 \h 30 Link to national incentives lookup  PAGEREF _Toc133904847 \h 30 Low income programs  PAGEREF _Toc133904848 \h 30 Link to DOE Weatherization Program  PAGEREF _Toc133904849 \h 30 6.3.5 Financing terms  PAGEREF _Toc133904850 \h 30 6.4 Installer data not influencing price  PAGEREF _Toc133904851 \h 30 6.4.1 Notes  PAGEREF _Toc133904852 \h 30 6.4.2 Photos  PAGEREF _Toc133904853 \h 30 6.5 Links to sales skills protocol  PAGEREF _Toc133904854 \h 30 7 Minimizing risks  PAGEREF _Toc133904855 \h 30 7.1 Due to inaction  PAGEREF _Toc133904856 \h 30 7.1.1 Discomfort  PAGEREF _Toc133904857 \h 31 7.1.2 Humidity  PAGEREF _Toc133904858 \h 31 7.1.3 Condensation and mold issues  PAGEREF _Toc133904859 \h 31 7.1.4 Stack effect impacting combustion venting  PAGEREF _Toc133904860 \h 31 7.1.5 Undersized or oversized HVAC equipment  PAGEREF _Toc133904861 \h 31 7.1.6 Frozen pipes  PAGEREF _Toc133904862 \h 31 7.1.7 High bills  PAGEREF _Toc133904863 \h 31 7.1.8 Radon  PAGEREF _Toc133904864 \h 31 Link to EPA - Click the link to see if your region has radon.  PAGEREF _Toc133904865 \h 31 7.1.9 Ice Dams  PAGEREF _Toc133904866 \h 31 Link to Home Energy  PAGEREF _Toc133904867 \h 32 Link to Minnesota Department of Commerce  PAGEREF _Toc133904868 \h 32 Link to problems  PAGEREF _Toc133904869 \h 32 7.2 Due to action  PAGEREF _Toc133904870 \h 32 7.2.1 When NOT to do air sealing  PAGEREF _Toc133904871 \h 32 7.2.2 Relationship of combustion venting to air sealing  PAGEREF _Toc133904872 \h 32 7.2.3 Reduced air exchange  PAGEREF _Toc133904873 \h 33 Link to mechanical ventilation solutions  PAGEREF _Toc133904874 \h 33 Link to Home Energy article on building tightness  PAGEREF _Toc133904875 \h 33 Link to National Research Council Canada  PAGEREF _Toc133904876 \h 33 7.2.4 Fire hazards  PAGEREF _Toc133904877 \h 33 Link to Fire Code  PAGEREF _Toc133904878 \h 33 7.2.5 Vermiculite Insulation  PAGEREF _Toc133904879 \h 33 Link to EPA  PAGEREF _Toc133904880 \h 33 8 Links  PAGEREF _Toc133904881 \h 34 8.1 Building science information  PAGEREF _Toc133904882 \h 34 8.1.1 Stack effect  PAGEREF _Toc133904883 \h 34 8.1.2 Moisture and air flow linkages  PAGEREF _Toc133904884 \h 34 8.1.3 Air is a fluid, cfm in = cfm out  PAGEREF _Toc133904885 \h 34 8.1.4 Sources of air pressure  PAGEREF _Toc133904886 \h 34 8.1.5 Intro to blower doors  PAGEREF _Toc133904887 \h 35 Link to DOE for more information on blower doors  PAGEREF _Toc133904888 \h 35 Link to Bob Vila with George James video  PAGEREF _Toc133904889 \h 35 Link to Home Energy Magazine  PAGEREF _Toc133904890 \h 35 8.1.6 Intro to Combustion Appliance Zones  PAGEREF _Toc133904891 \h 35 8.1.7 Mechanical ventilation  PAGEREF _Toc133904892 \h 35 Link to LBNL  PAGEREF _Toc133904893 \h 35 Cost of Mechanical Ventilation calculator  PAGEREF _Toc133904894 \h 35 Link to Home Energy  PAGEREF _Toc133904895 \h 36 Types of mechanical ventilation systems  PAGEREF _Toc133904896 \h 36 Link to Minnesota Department of Commerce  PAGEREF _Toc133904897 \h 36 Indoor Ventilation  PAGEREF _Toc133904898 \h 36 Link to Natural Research Council Canada  PAGEREF _Toc133904899 \h 36 Mechanical Ventilation and Air Pressure in Houses  PAGEREF _Toc133904900 \h 36 Link to PATH Toolbase  PAGEREF _Toc133904901 \h 36 Whole-House Mechanical Ventilation Strategies - Details  PAGEREF _Toc133904902 \h 36 Link to Minnesota Coop Extension  PAGEREF _Toc133904903 \h 36 8.1.8 Pressure Diagnostics  PAGEREF _Toc133904904 \h 36 Link to Home Energy  PAGEREF _Toc133904905 \h 36 User Friendly Pressure Diagnostics  PAGEREF _Toc133904906 \h 36 8.2 Links to related best practice procedure sections  PAGEREF _Toc133904907 \h 36 8.2.1 Blower door testing  PAGEREF _Toc133904908 \h 36 8.2.2 Combustion safety  PAGEREF _Toc133904909 \h 36 8.2.3 Visual inspection of the building envelope  PAGEREF _Toc133904910 \h 36 8.3 To outside sources of information  PAGEREF _Toc133904911 \h 37 8.3.1 Home Energy Articles  PAGEREF _Toc133904912 \h 37 Subtopic  PAGEREF _Toc133904913 \h 37 Air Sealing in Occupied Homes  PAGEREF _Toc133904914 \h 37 Beauty and the Beast Upstairs  PAGEREF _Toc133904915 \h 37 8.3.2 DOE  PAGEREF _Toc133904916 \h 37 8.3.3 PATH  PAGEREF _Toc133904917 \h 37 Air Leakage  PAGEREF _Toc133904918 \h 37 8.3.4 EPA Home Sealing info  PAGEREF _Toc133904919 \h 37 8.3.5 EPA New Homes Air Sealing  PAGEREF _Toc133904920 \h 37 8.3.6 Oikos Air Sealing Guide  PAGEREF _Toc133904921 \h 37 9 Maximizing benefits  PAGEREF _Toc133904922 \h 37 9.1 Energy savings  PAGEREF _Toc133904923 \h 37 9.1.1 Focus on air leaks at the top of the building  PAGEREF _Toc133904924 \h 37 Link to National Research Council Canada  PAGEREF _Toc133904925 \h 38 9.1.2 Weatherstripping more expensive to seal  PAGEREF _Toc133904926 \h 38 9.2 Controlling condensation  PAGEREF _Toc133904927 \h 38 9.2.1 Combine air sealing with mechanical ventilation  PAGEREF _Toc133904928 \h 38 9.3 Comfort  PAGEREF _Toc133904929 \h 38 9.3.1 Focus on leakage sites near sitting areas  PAGEREF _Toc133904930 \h 38 9.4 Using Infrared  PAGEREF _Toc133904931 \h 38 9.5 IEQ  PAGEREF _Toc133904932 \h 38 9.5.1 Radon  PAGEREF _Toc133904933 \h 38 9.5.2 Exposure to crawl spaces or basement air  PAGEREF _Toc133904934 \h 39 10 Other Resources  PAGEREF _Toc133904935 \h 39 10.1 Videos  PAGEREF _Toc133904936 \h 39 10.2 Checklists  PAGEREF _Toc133904937 \h 39 10.3 Audio  PAGEREF _Toc133904938 \h 39 10.4 Forms  PAGEREF _Toc133904939 \h 39  Why air seal? Benefits list Speaking points for customer benefits Sealing air leakage is usually one of the most cost-effective ways to reduce heating and cooling bills. In addition to saving money, air sealing improves comfort by reducing drafts. Dust levels are dramatically reduced, along with the impact of outside noise inside the house. Controlling air leakage from the house into the attic also reduces the possibilities of attic mold/moisture problems as well as the possibility of ice dams. Infiltration can be as much as 30% of a home's energy bill, more in cold climates and less in mild climates. Tight houses with poor air quality typically have a source problem, something specific is creating poor air quality. Remove the source of the problem and the air quality is greatly improved. Keeping your house leaky does not avoid these types of problems. The best solution is a tight comfortable and efficient house with the sources of poor air quality removed. Sometimes this is referred to as "Dilution is not the solution to pollution". Controlling air leakage from a specific space, such as a damp basement or crawlspace, can improve the air quality of a house, in addition to saving energy. If you want additional air quality, simple mechanical ventilation systems will provide a consistent source of fresh air for less cost than relying on air leakage. The mechanical ventilation system, sometimes as simple as a very quiet bathroom fan, can provide a constant amount of fresh air, instead of relying on the inside-outside temperature difference to drive a widely varying amount of air leakage. You don't want too much air in the winter and too little air in the summer. You want the right amount of fresh air, year round. Additional benefits list for green clients Air sealing can improve health of building occupants by reducing dust and controlling the entry of contaminants into the building. For example, crawlspaces and basements may contain mold. Air entering into the building that passes through these spaces can pick up the contaminants. Energy use has impacts on the environment through greenhouse gas production and through the pollutants, such as mercury and nitrous oxides that are produced from power generation and other sources of combustion. Contractor benefits Higher customer satisfaction, HYPERLINK "#xpointer(/descendant-or-self::ap:Topic[@OId='JqhK11ROgEu0rGkFHmlO+Q=='])" name="Stack effect"fewer draft-related callbacks, and more referrals because a well-sealed house will be more comfortable than a poorly sealed house. and attic moisture. A well-sealed building needs less heating and cooling capacity, reducing installation costs for these appliances. Link to fewer complaints about drafts See also:  HYPERLINK \l "Stack_effect" Stack effect Internal link to Better control of moisture See also:  HYPERLINK \l "Moisture_and_air_flow_linkages" Moisture and air flow linkages Reduced ice dams Attic air sealing also reduces callbacks and expenses related to ice dams. Link to Toolbase See document:  HYPERLINK "http://www.toolbase.org/tertiaryT.asp?DocumentID=2298&CategoryID=1014" tertiaryT.asp HYPERLINK "http://www.toolbase.org/tertiaryT.asp?DocumentID=2298&CategoryID=1014"ToolBase  HYPERLINK "http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=home_solutions.hm_improvement_icedams"Energy Star HYPERLINK "http://www.ornl.gov/sci/roofs+walls/articles/ice_dam.html"Oak Ridge Link to Energy Star See document:  HYPERLINK "http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=home_solutions.hm_improvement_icedams" index.cfm Link to Oak Ridge See document:  HYPERLINK "http://www.ornl.gov/sci/roofs+walls/articles/ice_dam.html" ice_dam.html Driving forces creating air leakage Tightly sealing the building at the attic plane can dramatically slow the loss of heated air during the heating season, and reduce drafts throughout the building. This is because heated air tends to rise and leak out of upper levels of the building, and outdoor air is drawn into lower levels of the building. This stack effect is a principal cause of air leakage. [insert picture] Air leakage can also be driven by wind, a more intermittent effect than the stack effect and by fans, such as exhaust fans or furnace fans blowing through leaky duct work. Isolation of supply air registers from return air grilles can also create air leakage. Combustion appliances that use chimneys can also create air leakage by exhausting out air that needs replacement. This includes fireplaces and wood stoves. Link to Energy savings calculation In general, air sealing is one of the most cost- effective measures available, with payback times of 5 years or less for many improvement measures. In addition, it can save money by preventing maintenance problems such as freezing pipes, ice dams and roof rot. Link to LBNL Home Energy Saver See document:  HYPERLINK "http://hes.lbl.gov/" hes.lbl.gov Air sealing is just one component of all the energy savings opportunities in a house. To accurately calculate air sealing savings, you need to take into account the weather where the house is located and other energy uses. Use this link to analyze the total building energy use including savings from air sealing. Measuring air leakage Use a blower to estimate the amount of air leakage in a home. Then use software to calculate the potential energy savings from reducing that air leakage. Use the blower door again to make sure you have accomplished the savings that you predicted. Link to Home Energy See document:  HYPERLINK "http://homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/94/940111.html" 940111.html Where do you improve? See attachment(s):  HYPERLINK "C:\\Documents and Settings\\Gregory Thomas\\My Documents\\0docs\\HUD\\Air Sealing v1 4-3 gt (2).doc - Attachments\\pic18633.jpg" pic18633.jpg Tightly sealing the building at the attic plane can dramatically slow the loss of heated air during the heating season, and reduce drafts throughout the building. This is because heated air tends to rise and leak out of upper levels of the building, and outdoor air is drawn into lower levels of the building. This stack effect is a principal cause of air leakage. [insert picture] Air leakage can also be driven by wind, a more intermittent effect than the stack effect and by fans, such as exhaust fans or furnace fans blowing through leaky duct work. Isolation of supply air registers from return air grilles can also create air leakage. Combustion appliances that use chimneys can also create air leakage by exhausting out air that needs replacement. This includes fireplaces and wood stoves. Attic Finished You may have to move existing attic insulation to do proper sealing. Seal the following critical framing junctions with rigid material, caulked or foamed at the edges: Floor/kneewall transitions (block and seal floor joists below kneewall) [insert picture] Wall/ceiling transitions (on slopes, dormers and gable ends) [insert picture] Slopes to flat ceiling transitions. [insert picture] Also, seal electrical, HVAC and plumbing penetrations, wall top-plates, recessed light fixtures, and fans. Built-in drawers or cabinets should be enclosed and sealed from the attic side. Unfinished The best time to seal an attic is prior to installation of the insulation, but for purposes of retrofit air sealing, the following locations should be addressed. Large openings (flue, duct, and plumbing chases). These should be sealed with rigid material (sheetrock, plywood, foam board, etc.) caulked or foamed at the edges. Note: Always maintain required clearances between flues/chimneys and combustible materials. For sealing around flues, use sheet metal or foil-faced fiberglass ductboard and high-temperature caulk. [insert picture] Soffits - such as those frequently found above kitchen cabinets and in bathrooms - should be sealed off from the living space. [insert picture] Interior walls sometimes open to attic, like in split-level designs. These should be blocked at the lower top plate and enclosed from the attic side with insulation sheeting materials. [insert picture] Plumbing and wiring penetrations (easily sealed with one-part foam). Junctions between sheetrock and wall top-plates should be blocked with insulation sheeting material and sealed whenever possible. [insert picture] Recessed light fixtures. Only IC (insulation contact) rated fixtures should be sealed. The best way to seal these is by building sealed boxes from fire-rated materials such as sheetrock or ductboard. [insert pictures] Attic Bypasses See document:  HYPERLINK "http://www.state.mn.us/mn/externalDocs/Commerce/Attic_Bypasses_110602012529_AtticBypass.pdf" Attic_Bypasses_110602012529_AtticBypass.pdf Walls To outside Bottom plates and rim joists should be sealed to the subfloor with caulk or construction adhesive. If building a new addition, install an air infiltration barrier under the siding. This can be an insulated board material such as styrofoam or a housewrap/drainage plane such as Tyvek. Seal seams in infiltration barrier with tape. [insert picture] (Air infiltration barriers are not necessary with SIP or ICF construction). Whenever possible, gaps between window/door jambs and rough openings should be sealed with caulk, one-part foam, or other materials in accordance with manufacturers instructions. Hose bibs, fan termination points, electrical boxes and weatherheads that penetrate the exterior air infiltration barrier should be sealed with housewrap tape or silicone caulk. [insert picture] Electrical boxes should be sealed to sheetrock with caulk or sheetrock compound. Foam gaskets can be installed inside outlets to further reduce air infiltration. [insert picture] To attics Walls adjoining unconditioned attics should be enclosed with foam board, sheetrock, or sheathing. Gaps in the board material should be sealed. To garages and porches Porch walls Walls and floors adjoining unheated porches should be treated as exterior walls. Continuous sheathing and air barrier should be installed even in areas hidden by porch roofs which may not be sided. [insert picture] Garage walls and ceilings: Sealing garages from the living space is particularly important to prevent infiltration of automobile exhaust into the living space. Walls and floors adjoining garages should be sheetrocked in accordance with fire codes. All penetrations (wiring, gas piping, should be sealed with appropriate materials). All joist cavities that cross a wall between garage and living space should be blocked with rigid material. [insert picture] Special attention should be paid to sealing any ductwork passing through the garage. Kneewalls The kneewall is a critical region for sealing in finished attics, and story-and-a-half style houses such as saltboxes and capes. The cavity behind the kneewall can be considered conditioned or unconditioned space, depending on how it is insulated. For kneewall cavities that are to be heated / cooled: Seal exterior top plates and rim joists adjoining the kneewall cavity. [insert picture] Enclose the rafter slopes with rigid materials; seal seams in the rigid materials. [insert picture] For kneewall cavities that are NOT to be heated / cooled: Seal all penetrations of the ceiling below the cavity (see unfinished attics). Block and seal the floor/kneewall transition. Insert rigid blocking between the joists and caulk in place. [insert picture] Seal any pentetrations into kneewall (mainly electrical boxes). Weatherstrip kneewall access doors. Basement Basement air sealing should only be undertaken by contractors who are comfortable assessing houses for potential moisture problems and who are willing to undertake combustion safety tests, such as those established by the Building Performance Institute, to ensure air sealing does not create issues with moisture or backdrafting of combustion equipment. The following locations should be sealed with caulk or foam. [insert picture] Where local codes permit exposed foam board or 2-part foam on band joists, these materials can double as insulation and air sealing materials. Foam board should always be sealed in place with caulk or foam. Gaps between top of foundation wall and sill plate. [insert picture] Gaps between sill plate, band joist, and subfloor. [insert picture] Gas and oil pipe penetrations, hose bibs, electrical weatherheads. [insert picture] Fan and dryer vents. Sidewall vents (use noncombustible materials and observe required clearance for non-zero clearance flues). [insert picture] Window frames. Stone Stone foundations are often very leaky. Attempts to seal gaps in the stonework with expanding foam are often unsuccessful and unsightly. The best approach to reducing air leakage through stone walls is to repair deteriorated mortar. Concrete Poured concrete construction is inherently tight. Most air leaks will be associated with windows and doors, sill plates, and the band joist. Block Most air leaks will be associated with windows and doors, sill plates, and the band joist. If the sill plate is undersized and the top layer of block is unfilled hollow-core, then air can leak around the sill plate. This problem can be easily addressed with expanding foam. Concrete block walls can also provide pathways for soil gas entry. For example, the open cells at the top of block walls should be covered and sealed. Another location for soil gas infiltration is where drain lines, etc. penetrate the block walls. Other If the house is a split level, they often have exposed kneewalls in the basement or the crawlspace. You may not want to improve anything but the lid, major breeches, and the kneewalls. Garage Attached Sealing garages from the living space is particularly important to prevent infiltration of automobile exhaust into the living space. Walls and floors that are adjoining garages should be sheetrocked in accordance with fire codes. All penetrations (wiring, gas piping) should be sealed with appropriate materials. All joist cavities that cross a wall between garage and living space should be blocked with rigid material. [insert picture] Special attention should be paid to sealing any ductwork passing through the garage. Separate A garage unconnected to a living space will typically not require sealing. If it is a heated or cooled space, treat it as a separate building. Crawlspace Sealed Sealed crawlspaces with adequate moisture control can be treated as mini-basements. Vented One approach that has produced good results is to take steps to manage crawlspace moisture (install vapor barriers, etc.), then to seal crawlspace vents, converting the crawlspace to an unvented condition. This approach should only be undertaken when the contractor is confident that moisture issues have been addressed. Unvented crawlspaces are still not allowed in some areas due to local building codes. If a crawlspace is kept in a vented condition, it is important to seal all piping, wiring, HVAC, and other penetrations between the crawlspace and the living space. Any ductwork in the crawlspace should also be tightly sealed. Preferably, the floor joists in the crawlspace should be enclosed with plywood or some other rigid material to further reduce airflow and to prevent wildlife from damaging the insulation. Windows Basement The frames of new or existing basement windows should sealed to masonry walls with caulk or foam. When the frames of existing windows are sound, repairs to glazing and hardware can provide significant air leakage reduction at minimal cost. Finished space Air leakage through or around existing double-hung windows can often be reduced by installing or adjusting sash locks, installing storm windows, and caulking window trim. Whenever possible, full replacement windows and inserts should be installed, caulked, and flashed in accordance with manufacturers instructions. Doors Basement The pressure/thermal boundary should typically be established at the door in the plane of the basement wall, not the the exterior bulkhead. In older houses, basement doors are often non-standard sized, site-built, and excessively leaky. The first step in making these doors weathertight is to straighten and secure the frame of the door to the opening, which may require masonry fasteners. If a threshold is not present, one made of aluminum or pressure-treated wood should be installed. The door frame can then be sealed to the wall with expanding foam. If the existing door is to be used, it can be insulated with foam board; if not, a new door can be fabricated by sandwiching 1 foam board between two thin sheets of plywood, with a 1 wood border. New hinges and barrel bolts can ensure that the door closes tightly against the frame. Finished space Air leakage of existing doors can often be reduced significantly at minimal cost. Care must be taken to ensure that homeowners are able to open and close doors freely after weatherstripping. Ensure that the knob and lockset are tightly installed. Remove any old, loose, or damaged weatherstripping. Adjust the strike plate so that the door latches tightly with minimal play. If significant air leakage is still present: Install a high-quality weatherstripping (vinyl bulb with wood/metal backing, secured with nails or screws) to seal leaks at sides and top of door. Install threshold, sweep, or bottom shoe to seal leaks at bottom of door. Doors to attics Doors to walk-up attics and kneewall cavities can be weatherstripped. Small lift-up ceiling hatches (scuttles) are often relatively airtight, provided that the scuttle board makes good contact with the trim boards holding it in place. A thick layer of foam board insulates and gives weight to the scuttle, and prevents rattling in windy conditions. Pull-down attic stairs are usually quite leaky. The plywood door itself is often warped, and the springs do not provide tight closure. The best approach is to build or purchase a lightweight removable insulated cover (typically made of foam board) that fits over the stairs in the attic. To work well, this should make good contact with the attic floor; the gap between the ceiling sheetrock and the plywood floor should be blocked with wood or other material. What do you improve? Electrical Seal electrical penetrations of exterior walls (including the main weatherhead and boxes for outdoor lights) with caulk and weatherproof (tyvek) tape. Seal electrical penetrations between conditioned spaces and attics (including holes in top plates, ceiling boxes, etc.) with caulk or expanding foam. Seal IC-rated recessed light fixtures with sealed boxes made of sheetrock, ductboard, or other non-flammable material, and then sealed to the ceiling. Seal indoor electrical boxes or exterior walls with caulk and gaskets. Plumbing Seal around vent stacks at the level of the attic floor with expanding foam or caulk. Caulk hose bibs where they pass through the band joist or exterior wall. In older houses, seal plumbing chases at the basement ceiling to yield some benefit. Windows Air leakage through or around existing double-hung windows can often be reduced by installing or adjusting sash locks, installing storm windows, and caulking window trim. Whenever possible, full replacement windows and inserts should be installed, caulked, and flashed in accordance with manufacturers instructions. Ducts Duct shaft connections should be sealed with mastic. As they move through walls between non-conditioned and conditioned space, any infiltration points should be sealed with rigid material (sheetrock, plywood, foam board, etc.) that is caulked or foamed at the edges. Heating Pipes As they move through walls between non-conditioned and conditioned spce, infiltration should be sealed with caulk or foam. Note: Always maintain required clearances between flues/chimneys and combustible materials. Sill The following locations should be sealed with caulk or 1-part foam. (Where local codes permit exposed foam board or 2-part foam on band joists, these materials can double as insulation and air sealing materials. Foam board should be sealed in place with caulk or foam.) Gaps between top of foundation wall and sill plate. Gaps between sill plate, band joist, and subfloor. Gas and oil pipe penetrations, hose bibs, electrical weatherheads. Fan and dryer vents. Sidewall vents (use noncombustible materials and observe required clearance for non-zero clearance flues). Window frames. Attic hatch Doors to walk-up attics and kneewall cavities can be weatherstripped. Small lift-up ceiling hatches (scuttles) are often relatively airtight, provided that the scuttle board makes good contact with the trim boards holding it in place. A thick layer of foam board insulates and gives weight to the scuttle, and prevents rattling in windy conditions. Hook and eye securing mechanisms can have a significant impact to minimize air leakage. Pull-down attic stairs are usually quite leaky. The plywood door itself is often warped, and the springs do not provide tight closure. The best approach is to build or purchase a lightweight removable insulated cover (typically made of foam board) that fits over the stairs in the attic. To work well, this should make good contact with the attic floor; the gap between the ceiling sheetrock and the plywood floor should be blocked with wood or other material. Whole house fan The louvered covers of whole-house fans are usually very leaky. These are typically sealed from the attic by building a plywood or foam board box around the fan assembly. The box must be tightly sealed at to the attic floor; be sure to instruct the homeowner that the fan cover must be removed each summer and put back in place each winter. Recessed lights Recessed light fixtures should be replced with sealed fistures whwnever possible. Otherwise, only IC (insulation contact) rated fixtures should be sealed. The best way to seal these is by building sealed boxes from fire-rated materials such as sheetrock or ductboard and covering the fistures in the attic floor. Chimney Chase Flue and chimney chases should be sealed at the attic plane with rigid, non-combustible material such as sheet metal or foil-faced fiberglass ductboard. Use high-temperature caulk to seal the ductboard or metal to the flue pipe or chimney. If insulating the attic with cellulose, wrap the flue pipe in unfaced fiberglass batting, secured with wires, to prevent cellulose from coming in contact with the chimney Plumbing chase Plumbing vents passing through top plates into the attic should be sealed with caulk or one-part foam. Larger chases and plumbing walls lacking top plates should be sealed with foam board and one-part foam. Outlets Inexpensive insulating "inserts" can be installed behind electrical outlets to minimize air leakage from inner wall cavities. Switch plates Inexpensive insulating "inserts" can be installed behind switch plates to minimize air leakage from inner wall cavities. Top plates The top plates of stud walls frequently leak where the sheet rock or plaster meets the top plate. Changes in framing Changes in framing frequently result in a path for air to leave the heated space. This includes interior soffiting such as required by a drop in ceiling height. Party walls The block or other fire resistant wall separating two apartments can have leakage in the interior of the wall or where the framing ties into the wall. Other Where two different materials meet there is often an air leak. An example of two different materials meeting is sheet rock up against a brick fireplace. EPA illustration How do you improve? Visual training resources Southface Air Sealing Poster See attachment(s):  HYPERLINK "C:\\Documents and Settings\\Gregory Thomas\\My Documents\\0docs\\HUD\\Air Sealing v1 4-3 gt (2).doc - Attachments\\Southface air-seal poster.pdf" Southface air-seal poster.pdf Strategic dense pack cellulose Installation standards When properly installed, cellulose insulation can be a cost- effective way to seal hard- to-reach air leaks in floors, porch ceilings and other building cavities. In order to act as a durable air barrier, cellulose must be blown into an enclosed cavity at high density (> 3.5 lbs/cubic foot). Sites for strategic dense-packing should be chosen to align with and complete existing thermal boundaries. In some cases creative approaches have been used to contain cellulose at the building perimeter--for example, for a leaky band joist between a first and second floor, kitchen trash bags can be inserted into drill holes and packed full of cellulose. Cellulose installation density can be most easily determined by calculating the volume of a space and determining by count the number of bags necessary to fill the space. An alternative method uses a weighed core sample. These techniques support the use of cellulose as an air sealing approach. Installation task descriptions Setup Taking a few extra minutes to plan and setup may greatly increase job efficiency. Planning parking, access, materials staging, etc. cuts down on install time and increases productivity. Walking through the house with the customer provides a chance to discuss customer concerns, as well as to assess and document pre-existing cracks in sheetrock, moisture damage, etc. prior to beginning of work. Equipment maintenance A well-stocked, organized vehicle and properly maintained equipment increase productivity, projects professionalism, and decreases job costs due to broken equipment and damaged materials. Sheet goods, fasteners, caulk, blower hoses, cords, and lighting should be stored in secure, convenient bins, shelves, or hooks. A regular schedule of calibrating equipment is also necessary.. Electrical Areas to be insulated should be checked for electrical hazards, including open electrical boxes, damaged or frayed wires, knob-and- tube or other antiquated wiring, etc. Contractor equipment (lights, saws, blowers, etc.) should also be inspected regularly for damaged wiring. Any wiring damaged during drilling or other preparation should be repaired prior to insulation work. Electrically-powered insulation blowers should only be plugged into house circuits in good condition and suitable for the required amperage. Crew members dealing with insulation blower should be trained in electrical safety. Steps should also be taken to minimize static buildup on insulation hoses. Ladders Ladders should be stored, transported, and used in accordance with manufacturer's instructions and OSHA standards. Siding Removal Siding removal should be done carefully to minimize damage. Aluminum and vinyl siding can be un-seamed with an appropriate siding tool. Wood clapboards can be carefully pried off, loosening the course of siding above the one to be removed to access nail heads. Cedar shakes can be pried off or cut and snapped with a utility knive. An assortment of ply bars, side cutters, etc. is useful during siding removal. For houses built prior to 1978, lead-safe practices should be used. Drilling For high density cellulose insulation, drill holes should be 2.5, ideally about 2 up an 8 wall. To maximize efficiency and minimize damage, an effort should be made to determine where studs are placed within the wall cavities. Hose and cord deployment Orderly cord and hose deployment increases work efficiency and decreases likelihood of damage to property as well as tripping injuries. Hoses should be coiled and strapped or wound on reels when not in use; no more hose or cord should be deployed than is necessary to reach the work area. Take care to protect door and window trim, stairs, wall corners, etc. from abrasion by the hose. Blowing Attics Prior to open attic blows, all necessary preparation (air sealing, installation of vent chutes, installation of baffles to prevent spillage, etc.) should be completed. The attic should be blown to the desired pre-settled depth in accordance with insulation manufacturers coverage charts; coverage should be verified with bag counts. Depth markers or flagging on trusses may help crews to maintain even coverage; the attic crew member should start at the far end of the attic and work their way back toward the hatch. Walls Considerable practice is required to achieve consistent good results with high-density sidewall insulation. The main cellulose hose is connected via series a reducers and smaller diameter hoses to a flexible vinyl sidewall tube approx. 9 long and 1 or 1.25 in diameter. The tube is inserted into the wall cavity; the hose is used to probe for blockage as well as to help pack the insulation to the desired density. A rag or scrap of fiberglass is used to allow air to escape from the cavity while keeping insulation in. Cellulose insulation should be packed to a minimum density of 3.5 lbs/cubic ft. At this density, it is difficult to push ones finger into the insulation. Practice is needed to develop the forearm strength, coordination of blower controls, and feel to achieve efficient dense-packing with minimal material waste. Hopper Open-blow operations with a medium to large volume blower may require one person feeding the hopper full time. For dense-pack work, particularly with larger machines, a crew member can alternate between feeding the hopper and other activities (blowing insulation, air sealing, clean-up. Hopper extensions, either factory made or homebuilt, can allow loading more bails at a time, freeing up crew for other activities. Siding replacement Siding should be restored, as closely as possible, to original condition. Aluminum/vinyl siding should be completely zipped; dings in aluminum siding should be straightened. Nail holes in clapboard should be caulked or puttied; drill holes in siding, if any, should be repaired with countersunk wooden plugs and outdoor wood putty. Clapboard severely cracked during removal should be replaced. Clean up Maintaining a clean, orderly job site, inside and outside the house, increases customer satisfaction and decreases material waste and tool loss. Cleanup time and effort can be greatly reduced by prior arrangement with customers to clear work areas, good planning of hose/cord access, and use of dropcloths, tarps, and plastic sheeting to contain mess. Every crew should keep a fully stocked set of cleanup materials, including a working wet-dry vacuum (for outdoor/truck use), HEPA vacuum (for indoor use), contractor-grade trash bags, brooms, dustpans, mop, bucket, rags, paper towels, and citrus or ammonia- based cleaning spray. Indoor areas made dusty with insulation should be HEPA-vacuumed; outdoor areas should be swept, vacuumed, or raked. Link to industry standards One part foam Installation standards One-part polyurethane foam is an extremely useful and versatile air sealing material. It is known to many homeowners as the messy and difficult-to-use cans with straw applicators; contractor-grade steel or plastic gun applicators are now widely available and offer cleaner, more controller application. The gun can be adjusted to apply beads of foam to about 2 wide, making it useful for air sealing top plates, electrical and plumbing penetrations, gaps around basement windows, and many other air leaks. For larger gaps, expanding foam can be used to seal the edges of rigid materials such as foam board. One part foam is flammable and should not be used around to seal around chimneys or flues. For aesthetic reasons, one part foam should not be used in finished spaces or left exposed on the exterior of the house. Installation task descriptions To ensure good consistency and adhesion, cans of foam should be kept warm and brought indoors in good weather. Gloves and long sleeves should be worn to avoid contact with skin. To maximize foam gun life and performance, follow manufacturers instructions concerning cleaning and storage. To avoid waste, the smallest bead necessary to seal the gap should be used. For gaps larger than about 2, rigid blocking materials should be used. Care should be applied when applying foam around window and door rough openings to avoid warping the frames. An air sealing crew member should work their way systematically through an attic, applying foam to all potential leakage sites (top plates, etc.). Crew should also work their way systematically around basements and crawlspaces sealing leaks around the band joists, window frames, etc. Permeable surfaces such as carpets and drapes should be protected from foam. Foam accidentally sprayed on cement floors or walls should be allowed to cure thoroughly, at which point it can be removed with a minimum of mess; any residue can be scraped up with a putty knife or razor blade. Link to industry standards Spray foam Installation standards Two-part polyurethane foam is an expensive material but used strategically it can produce excellent air leakage reduction while reducing labor costs. The work area should be prepared and cleared of obstacles so that the crew member can move rapidly from one joist bay to the next so that the foam doesnt cure in the nozzle. Protect windows, furniture, and other items that would be damaged by oversprayed foam. Practice is required to achieve full coverage with minimal overspray and overly thick application. Check local codes to see if exposed polyurethane foam is permitted on band joists in your area or if a fire barrier such as sheetrock is required. Also check materials MSDS for recommended ventilation and personal protection requirements. Permeable surfaces such as carpets and drapes should be protected from foam. Foam accidentally sprayed on cement floors or walls should be allowed to cure thoroughly, at which point it can be removed with a minimum of mess; any residue can be scraped up with a putty knife or razor blade. Installation task descriptions A typical application for foam would be sealing and insulating a leaky band joist. Other applications include sealing module seams, top plates, and other attic bypasses and insulating crawlspace walls. Trial and error is the place to start learning how to apply spray foam. A thick but consistent "bead" is best. Link to industry standards Caulk Installation standards Select a caulk appropriate to the application. Silicone caulks are, in general, more flexible, can span wider gaps, and are more appropriate to outdoor applications; they are not paintable, give off stronger odors, and are more difficult to clean. High temperature silicone should be used for sealing around chimney chases and high-temperature sidewall terminations. Acrylic and latex caulks are easier to clean, less odorous, and are paintable; they are generally preferred for indoor applications and gaps less than 3/8. For wider gaps, backer rods can reduce the amount of caulk needed and reduce cracking and the caulk flexes and dries. Caulk should be applied to clean surfaces (free of dust and debris). The tube should be cut at an angle; the size of the cut will determine the thickness of the bead. In general, pushing the caulk gun away from you provides better penetration into a crack than pulling the gun; wetted fingertips or implements can also be used to shape and tool the caulk into the crack. For interior caulking, take care to protect carpets, curtains, and other permeable surfaces, and keep a clean rag and warm water ready to clean up fingerprints and smears. Link to California Procedures for Proper Caulking and Sealing See document:  HYPERLINK "http://www.energy.ca.gov/efficiency/qualityhomes/caulking_sealing.html" caulking_sealing.html Link to Canadian Wood Council Caulking Information See document:  HYPERLINK "http://www.cwc.ca/design/building_science/internal_barriers/caulks.php" caulks.php Insulation boards and metal Installation standards Rigid materials are used in a wide range of insulating and air sealing applications. Extruded polystyrene and high-density expanded polystyrene are preferred for foundation and ground-contact applications. Because polystyrene has slight vapor permeability, it is preferred for exterior wall insulation in cold and mixed climates. Foil-faced polyisocyanurate provides high R-value per inch and is more resistant to breakage; it works well for enclosure of vertical surfaces in attics and kneewalls. It also works well as an interior sheathings. Foam boards should be attached securely to substrates with cap nails, furring strips, or washer screws; in foundation wall applications adhesive can be used but should be reinforced with a mechanical fastening system. Enclosures built of foam board (for example, over pull-down attic stairs or around built-in drawers in a kneewall) should be reinforced with frame material as needed. Seams and junctions in foam board should be sealed with builders tape, caulk, or foam. Foam boards are flammable and should not be used where high heat is an issue, for example around recessed light fixtures and flue pipes. Codes require that foam board exposed in basements and living space be covered with a fire barrier such as sheetrock; check with local officials for their interpretation of this rule in relation to crawlspaces. For high temperature applications, sheet metal or foil-faced duct board can be used. Photo of caulking a foam board in place See attachment(s):  HYPERLINK "C:\\Documents and Settings\\Gregory Thomas\\My Documents\\0docs\\HUD\\Air Sealing v1 4-3 gt (2).doc - Attachments\\Caulking a foam board in place.JPG" Caulking a foam board in place.JPG Plate covers Installation standards Inexpensive insulating "inserts" can be installed behind electrical outlets to minimize air leakage from inner wall cavities. In new construction or remodeling, electrical outlets on exterior walls should be sealed to prevent air infiltration. One approach is to seal knockouts in the box with caulk or putty, then caulk the edges of the box to the sheet rock (or interior foam board, if present). Another approach in new construction is to enclose electrical boxes in airtight pans. These pans have broad flanges that can be taped to polyethylene vapor barriers or foam sheathing where appropriate. Weatherstripping Door weatherstripping installation standards Air leakage of existing doors can often be reduced significantly at minimal cost. Care must be taken to ensure that homeowners are able to open and close doors freely after weatherstripping. Remember that wood doors may shrink and swell seasonally with changing temperature and humidity. Ensure that the knob and lockset are tightly installed. Remove any old, loose, or damaged weatherstripping. Adjust the strike plate so that the door latches tightly with minimal play. If significant air leakage is still present: Install a high-quality weatherstripping (vinyl bulb with wood/metal backing, secured with nails or screws) to seal leaks at sides and top of door. Install threshold, sweep, or bottom shoe to seal leaks at bottom of door. Window weatherstripping installation standards Quality assurance Visual Checklist Locations Electrical Plumbing Windows Ducts Heating pipes Sill Attic hatch Whole house fan Recessed lights Chimney chase Plumbing chase Party wall Top plates Changes in framing Outlets Switch plates Treatments Weatherstripping Caulk One part foam Spray foam Outlet and switch plate covers Insulation boards and metal Quality Effectiveness Durability Appearance Performance tests The recommended process is to test into and out of a building. Testing in will help you find leaks and tell you how hard to look for them. Testing out will tell you if you have been successful and if you need to supply additional sources of mechanical ventilation. Blower door See also:  HYPERLINK \l "Blower_door_testing" Blower door testing The air flow at 50 Pascals of air pressure (CFM 50) is a benchmark used by many standards and can be used to compare leakage between buildings. Leakage can also be characterized by the leakage per square foot of surface area, at a pressure of 50 Pascals. Other blower door tests that measure flow at a range of pressures may provide more accuracy, if that is required. Pressure diagnostics See also:  HYPERLINK \l "Pressure_Diagnostics" Pressure Diagnostics Pressure diagnostics allow you to determine approximitaly how connected a transition space, for example an attic, is to the inside or outside. If the attic has been air sealed, it should have no connection to the inside. IR scan See also:  HYPERLINK \l "Using_Infrared" Using Infrared Infrared inspections of air sealing work provide rapid qualitative or visual feedback. How do you diagnose, price and sell the improvement? Educating your customer Links Videos Consumer information sheets Link to Minnesota Department of Commerce See document:  HYPERLINK "http://www.state.mn.us/mn/externalDocs/Commerce/Attic_Bypasses_110602012529_AtticBypass.pdf" Attic_Bypasses_110602012529_AtticBypass.pdf EPA Home Sealing See document:  HYPERLINK "http://www.energystar.gov/ia/home_improvement/Home_Sealing_Brochure04.pdf" Home_Sealing_Brochure04.pdf EPA Home Sealing DIY See document:  HYPERLINK "http://www.energystar.gov/ia/home_improvement/home_sealing/DIY_COLOR_100_dpi.pdf" DIY_COLOR_100_dpi.pdf Canadian Energuide for Houses See document:  HYPERLINK "http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/publications/infosource/pub/renovate/airleakage/english/airleakage.pdf" airleakage.pdf Speaking points See also:  HYPERLINK \l "Speaking_points_for_customer_benefits" Speaking points for customer benefits General base building data CFM50 test Visual alternative Dimension Zone type Estimating the improvement What data do you need to make a good estimate? How do you present this to a customer so that you sell the job? What information will help your installation crew do the best job? Savings estimate What information is needed to estimate the energy savings? Are there other non-energy financial savings? Post CFM 50 Estimated Benchmark your blower door number against other houses and the proposed workscope. If you are doing sidewall insulation that has an air sealing impact, such as dense pack cellulose, take that into consideration. Estimated post retrofit air changes Quantify the materials that are needed and quantity Cellulose Bags per square foot based for a specific wall or attic insulation depth, for example 4" for a typical retrofit wall or 12" for a retrofit attic. High density cellulose is installed at 3.5 pounds per cubic foot. This figure can be used when using cellulose to air seal a large cavity. Tubes of caulk Coverage depends greatly on hole size and speed of application. Foam Coverage is per board foot or a one inch deep one square foot piece of foam. Foam tends to be overused since it applies very quickly. One part Estimate per linear foot. Two part Estimate spray foam from coverage. there tends to be a lot of overspray and expansion so materials use may be higher than expected. There is a labor to materials trade off that should be accounted for. Spray foam is fast to apply, but may cost more than other materials. Have crews track their usage to maintain control over materials costs. Weatherstrip Weatherstripping selection should be done carefully and take into account durability as well as ease of installation. Weatherstripping installed on frequently used openings should be more durable. Pricing can be by linear foot or by piece, for the sweep at the base of a door for example. Insulation board Board is priced per square foot for various insulation values. Be clear on the purpose of the board. If the board is to be used primarily for sealing purposes, and other insulation will cover the board, use an easy to cut board. If the board is to insulate as well as air seal, pick a board with an insulation value closer to the insulation value of the other surfaces in the same space. Outlet and Switch Plate covers Plate covers are priced per item. Labor can vary depending on the amount and placement of furniture that must be moved to reach the outlets. Other Other air sealing materials include sheet metal for use in areas requiring heat resistance, plastic bags filled with fiberglass insulation used to stuff holes, and other creative materials appropriate for totally stopping air movement. Detailed installer data influencing price The following information should be collected by the estimator at the time of the initial inspection so that a proper estimate can be made and crews can come to the job properly prepared and well informed about the scope of the project. Location and Number of locations for air sealing The data collection system used should record the types of surfaces requiring treatment. this count of holes can be used to create a per hole estimate to do the required air sealing. Check your estimate for all holes against a common sense level of effort. Access to spaces that will require air sealing Gaining access to a space can increase the cost of your bid. A space may require a hole to be cut to allow access and the hole resealed for fitted with a reopenable door. Head clearance A requirement to fit crew into small spaces can also affect pricing. Crawlspaces and low sloping roofs are frequently hard to access due to space limitations. Framing layout Balloon framing will make air sealing more difficult. The balloon framing allows for more connections between holes, meaning that the air sealing work needs to be comprehensive to be effective. Contemporary houses or houses with lots of remodeling done to them may have framing details that are hard to seal effectively. Ventilation required Attics and crawlspaces require ventilation to be within most building codes. Sometimes removable ventilation caps are used to help seal up crawlspaces for the winter and still meet the code requirement for ventilation in a crawlspace. The building code for attics typically require ventilation installed as part of an insulation job. Air sealing can help this ventilation system be much more effective. Electrical Do any of your tools require access to line voltage? Knob and tube Know and tube wiring can make air sealing an attic a very cautious process. Replacement of the wiring should be considered. Incentives available Are there incentives available for this improvement from a state agency, from a utility or from state or federal tax credits or deductions. Tax Discussion of tax`deductions vs tax credits. Rebates Types of incentives. Link to national incentives lookup See document:  HYPERLINK "http://www.dsireusa.org/index.cfm?EE=0&RE=1" index.cfm The link will take you to the DSIRE online database of energy efficiency and renewable energy incentives. This database covers all 50 states and the federal government. Low income programs The federal government offer low income families assistance in weatherizing their house through the Low Income Weatherization Assistance Program. Some utilities offer similar or complimentary programs. Link to DOE Weatherization Program See document:  HYPERLINK "http://www.eere.energy.gov/weatherization/apply.html" apply.html Financing terms Is this improvement eligible for financing? Installer data not influencing price Notes Good notes taken at the time of an inspection can be very helpful to an installer. Photos Digital photography has made it easy to get pictures at the time of an estimate that you can pass on to an installer. Be sure to provide a commentary so the installer knows where the picture is in the building. Create a folder on your computer that has all the information for one building including pictures. Links to sales skills protocol Minimizing risks Due to inaction Uncontrolled air leakage can cause a wide range of problems. If you are doing work on a building and you do not know how to reduce air leakage you risk a wide range of performance problems. Taking control of air leakage reduces your risk from these problems. Discomfort Failure to properly air seal a building will result in the continuation of discomfort problems. Correcting the problem may involve air sealing at sites other than the sites of the comfort problems. Humidity Leaky homes can be excessively dry in the winter. Air escaping from the house carries with it moisture. Cold air entering the house is heated by the house. The moisture carrying ability of the cold fresh air is increased when it is heated, making the air dry. Condensation and mold issues Unintentional leakage of air into building cavities and assemblies may result in damage from condensation and mold. Air movement is one of the primary transport mechanisms for moisture. Stack effect impacting combustion venting Excessive depressurization of the basement due to stack effect may lead to backdrafting of combustion. Undersized or oversized HVAC equipment If you do not know how leaky a building is, how do you know how big to make the heating equipment? Heating contractors will tend to put in larger equipment that costs more and uses more energy, just to be safe. If you know a house is tight, and especially if you measure the air leakage, you can reduce the HVAC equipment size and save money on installation, on operation and have occupants that appreciate a quiet and comfortable house. Frozen pipes Cold air blowing on pipes is a major cause of frozen pipes. High bills Failure to properly air seal a building will result in continued high energy costs. Radon Radon is a cancer-causing, radioactive gas that occurs in various regions of the country. You can't see, smell, or taste radon. But it may be a problem with or without air sealing. Radon test kits are available at low cost and are worth the expense. Link to EPA - Click the link to see if your region has radon. See document:  HYPERLINK "http://www.epa.gov/radon/zonemap.html" zonemap.html Ice Dams Ice dams result from heat entering the attic and melting snow that is lying on a roof when the outside air is cold enough to refreeze the melted water as it reaches the edge of the roof. [Picture] Though the effect is frequently attributed to poor attic insulation, high rates of air leakage, even through the attic insulation is frequently the source of the problem. Adding additional attic ventilation will not reduce the air leakage rate. Air sealing is often the best solution. Link to Home Energy Link to Minnesota Department of Commerce Link to problems See also:  HYPERLINK \l "Reduced_ice_dams" Reduced ice dams Due to action When undertaking air sealing, be careful of these things. These things may already be hazards without doing any air sealing, but may be aggravated if not addressed before or during air sealing. When NOT to do air sealing When moisture might be an issue. Look for any signs of mildew, mold or structural rotting. If moisture is causing a problem then take control of the moisture source before air sealing. If there are gas appliances, carbon Monoxide might be an issue. In general. a carbon monoxide detector should be installed as part of any air sealing effort. Heating equipment may have an issue. If there are any signs of backdrafting or inefficient combustion, have it tested by an HVAC technician. Unvented space heaters will be used at any time over the year. If there is a whole house fan that is used regularly. Customers need to be educated to the risk associated with whole house exhaust fans and combustion equipment Rodents or insect infestations might be an issue. Be sure to figure this out first if there might be a problem. Houses on slabs are traditionally tighter (air sealing just the attic might even cause a problem with lack of ventilation). Often areas of slab around plumbing pipes are boxed out to that the plumber has enough space to modify the pipe location in the dirt. These need to be covered and sealed. Also, the joint between the slab floor and foundation wall needs polyurethane or silicone caulk to reduce soil gases. Relationship of combustion venting to air sealing The relationship between the combustion zone and the living space is a primary datapoint. Always install a carbon monoxide detector as part of any air sealing effort. Is the combustion equipment in a zone with an air handler - with leaky ducts? Isolating and sealing the combustion zone from the living space should be a priority in southern climates, this reduces humid summer air into the living space. Is a combustion air vent necessary? For a standard water heater, you need a 6- inch vent? 1 square inch per 1000 Btus. Reduced air exchange Sealing up a building will reduce the amount of air entering the building. The best way to determine if you have done enough and not too much sealing is to do a blower door test. Another option is to seal up a building as much as possible and then supply fresh air via a mechanical ventilation system. Link to mechanical ventilation solutions See also:  HYPERLINK \l "Mechanical_ventilation" Mechanical ventilation Link to Home Energy article on building tightness See document:  HYPERLINK "http://www.homeenergy.org//archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/93/930309.html" 930309.html Link to National Research Council Canada See document:  HYPERLINK "http://irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/pubs/ctus/14_e.html" 14_e.html Fire hazards Recessed lighting fixtures and chases around chimneys are the typical air sealing locations where special precautions should be taken. Recessed lighting fixtures can be sealed using a sealed sheet rock box built around the fixture and sealed to the attic ceiling. Or older fixtures can be replaced with sealed fixtures. Consider switching the light bulbs to compact florescent bulbs. They use less energy and produce considerably less waste heat. Chimney chases can be sealed using metal to bridge the gap from the chimney to the framing and sealed with caulking resistant to high temperatures. Link to Fire Code Vermiculite Insulation Vermiculite insulation can contain asbestos. For more information on handling vermiculite, follow the link for information from the US EPA. Link to EPA See document:  HYPERLINK "http://www.epa.gov/asbestos/pubs/insulation.html" insulation.html Links Building science information Stack effect The stack effect occurs when there are leaks in the top and bottom of a home, so that warm air flows out the top and cold air is then drawn in through the bottom. [insert picture] A tight home envelope (walls, floors and roof) is one of the most important aspects of an energy-efficient home. Moisture and air flow linkages See document:  HYPERLINK "http://www.homeenergy.org//archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/95/951108.html" 951108.html Air flow is the primary way that moisture moves through a building. tests have shown that putting a hole in a wall, such as an electrical outlet, allows ten times as much moisture to go through the wall. So stop the air movement and you stop almost all (roughly 90%) of the moisture movement. Air is a fluid, cfm in = cfm out If a cubic foot of air is leaking into a house, an identical cubic foot of air is leaking out [insert picture], except that the air leaking out is now warmed up and carrying moisture. So if you feel cold air leaking in at a door, you can be sure that hot air is leaking out. If it did not, the house would keep increasing its air pressure to the point that it would explode, We do not see houses exploding in the winter from the cold air leaking in. Sources of air pressure The main sources of air pressure are: Internal pressures resulting from stack effect or hot air rising. This occurs whenever tempeatures inside a building are higher than the outside air temperature. As the temperature differences increase, such as in cold weather, the pressure difference increases. As the pressure difference increases, the flow through holes connected to the outside increases. Some holes will leak in and others will leak out depending on their placement in the building and other factors. Combustion air flow up chimneys is another example of stack effect. Remember that air can flow down chimneys if the air pressure in the house is low enough. Chimneys can also compete with each other. the large amount of air going up a fireplace chimney can sometimes create negative pressures in a house that might cause a hot water flue to backdraft or pull combustion air into the house.. External and internal wind pressures resulting from wind effects. Wind varies by location and also by exposure. Trees, bushes and other buildings can reduce the effect of wind. Internal pressures resulting from mechanical systems such as kitchen exhaust fan, dryers, or blowers on HVAC equipment. Fans can create a powerful pressure difference in a building, while they are running, if there is not a balancing flow. This effect is often felt when entering a restaurant in the winter. If the powerful fans pulling air out of the kitchen do not have an equally powerful fan pulling air into the restaurant, then when the front door is opened, it may become the easiest place for air to enter the building. Unbalanced flows from fans can create pressures that can pull air down chimneys. Leaky ducts or supply air registers isolated from return air grilles also create air pressure differences that affect other holes through the building envelope. [insert picture] Intro to blower doors A blower door is a large calibrated fan that hangs in a door and measures how leaky a building is. [insert picture]. The blower door measures air movement at a specific pressure. You can then make a very good guess at just how leaky the building will be on a cold winter day. Blower doors tell you how tight a building is, so you can tighten it up and know when you need to add mechanical ventilation. Blower doors can help you feel where leaks occur. Blower doors when combined with pressure testing gauges (manometers) can help you tell if inside parts of a building are really connected to the outside. Link to DOE for more information on blower doors See document:  HYPERLINK "http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumer/your_home/energy_audits/index.cfm/mytopic=11190" mytopic=11190 Link to Bob Vila with George James video See document:  HYPERLINK "http://hvac.bobvila.com/Video/41.html" 41.html Link to Home Energy Magazine See document:  HYPERLINK "http://www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/94/940110.html" 940110.html Intro to Combustion Appliance Zones Mechanical ventilation There are a wide range of mechanical ventilation solutions available. Link to LBNL Cost of Mechanical Ventilation calculator See document:  HYPERLINK "http://epb1.lbl.gov/ventilation/program.html" program.html Link to Home Energy Types of mechanical ventilation systems See document:  HYPERLINK "http://homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/00/000511.html" 000511.html Link to Minnesota Department of Commerce Indoor Ventilation See document:  HYPERLINK "http://www.state.mn.us/mn/externalDocs/Commerce/Indoor_Ventilation_110802042008_IndoorVent.pdf" Indoor_Ventilation_110802042008_IndoorVent.pdf Link to Natural Research Council Canada Mechanical Ventilation and Air Pressure in Houses See document:  HYPERLINK "http://irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/pubs/cbd/cbd245_e.html" cbd245_e.html Link to PATH Toolbase Whole-House Mechanical Ventilation Strategies - Details See document:  HYPERLINK "http://www.toolbase.org/techinv/techDetails.aspx?technologyID=202" techDetails.aspx Link to Minnesota Coop Extension See document:  HYPERLINK "http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/housingandclothing/DK7284.html" DK7284.html Pressure Diagnostics Link to Home Energy User Friendly Pressure Diagnostics See document:  HYPERLINK "http://www.homeenergy.org//archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/94/940908.html" 940908.html Links to related best practice procedure sections These links contain more detailed information including applicable standards and best practices using performance testing tools and building science knowledge. Blower door testing See document:  HYPERLINK "..\\..\\..\\Desktop\\PIER Protocols\\Procedures\\Performing a Blower Door Test - Procedure CA 080604_CM.doc" Performing a Blower Door Test - Procedure CA 080604_CM.doc Combustion safety See document:  HYPERLINK "..\\..\\..\\Desktop\\PIER Protocols\\Procedures\\Inspecting Combustion Appliance Zones - Procedure 080604_CM.doc" Inspecting Combustion Appliance Zones - Procedure 080604_CM.doc Visual inspection of the building envelope See document:  HYPERLINK "..\\..\\..\\Desktop\\PIER Protocols\\Procedures\\Inspecting the Thermal Boundary - Procedure CA 080604_CM.doc" Inspecting the Thermal Boundary - Procedure CA 080604_CM.doc To outside sources of information Home Energy Articles See document:  HYPERLINK "http://www.homeenergy.org/" www.homeenergy.org Subtopic Air Sealing in Occupied Homes See document:  HYPERLINK "http://www.homeenergy.org//archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/95/951111.html" 951111.html Beauty and the Beast Upstairs See document:  HYPERLINK "http://www.homeenergy.org//archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/95/950309.html" 950309.html DOE See document:  HYPERLINK "http://eere.energy.gov/EE/buildings.html" buildings.html PATH See document:  HYPERLINK "http://www.pathnet.org/" www.pathnet.org Air Leakage See document:  HYPERLINK "http://www.toolbase.org/tertiaryT.asp?TrackID=&CategoryID=1549&DocumentID=2299" tertiaryT.asp EPA Home Sealing info See document:  HYPERLINK "http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=home_sealing.hm_improvement_sealing" index.cfm See attachment(s):  HYPERLINK "C:\\Documents and Settings\\Gregory Thomas\\My Documents\\0docs\\HUD\\Air Sealing v1 4-3 gt (2).doc - Attachments\\EPA Home Sealing DIY_COLOR_100_dpi.pdf" EPA Home Sealing DIY_COLOR_100_dpi.pdf EPA New Homes Air Sealing See document:  HYPERLINK "http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=new_homes_features.hm_f_reduced_air_infiltration" index.cfm Oikos Air Sealing Guide See document:  HYPERLINK "http://oikos.com/library/airsealing/index.html" index.html Maximizing benefits Energy savings Focus on air leaks at the top of the building Since hot air rises, you can be most effective if you start air sealing at the top of a building. Sealing air leaks into attics also requires less special care than sealing a leaky window or door. Basements should be next on your list. Remember that a big hole anywhere will be leaky, but a small hole in the attic will leak more than the same sized hole at a window. Link to National Research Council Canada See document:  HYPERLINK "http://irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/pubs/cbd/cbd104_e.html" cbd104_e.html Weatherstripping more expensive to seal Weatherstripping is one of the most expensive ways to do air sealing. It is more labor intensive per same hole size than caulking or sealing and the materials wear out more quickly than sealants since they are subject to movement when doors and windows open and close. Weatherstripping a door or hatch into an attic can save energy. Even though you can't feel it from inside the house, hot air is leaking out. Note that apartments or larger buildings may have a large percentage of the holes in the building envelope associated with operable windows. Controlling condensation Combine air sealing with mechanical ventilation You can air seal more completely and get more energy and non energy benefits if you also provide a building with mechanical ventilation. Controlled ventilation is almost always less expensive to operate than uncontrolled infiltration. Uncontrolled infiltration is also not a reliable source of ventilation. It provides too much fresh air when it is cold out and not enough fresh air when the weather is mild. Ventilation systems can be installed where building occupants produce moisture. This will help control moisture levels. Comfort Focus on leakage sites near sitting areas It often makes sense to target extra air sealing in the living space in areas where building occupants tend to sit, for food or television or to read a book. This will increase comfort and allow the occupants to be comfortable at a lower thermostat setting. Using Infrared See attachment(s):  HYPERLINK "C:\\Documents and Settings\\Gregory Thomas\\My Documents\\0docs\\HUD\\Air Sealing v1 4-3 gt (2).doc - Attachments\\IR of pipe penetration.JPG" IR of pipe penetration.JPG Use an Infrared (IR) camera, especially in combination with a blower door, to help you find leaks quickly. IR cameras are also very effective in helping to sell the job. The picture shows an IR image of air leakage at a pipe penetration. IEQ Radon Isolating a basement or crawlspace from the upstairs reduces stack effect and reduces the flow of radon into the living areas of a house. This is not a replacement for a radon control system but can help reduce already low levels radon to an even lower level. Exposure to crawl spaces or basement air Unconditioned basements and crawlspaces contain all sorts of contaminants. Sealing between the basement or crawlspace and the living space reduces stack effect and limits the entry of contaminants into the living space. Other Resources Videos Checklists Audio Forms April 2006 draft '(UXZ[ij    9:TUVWX/jbbUmHnHujaUmHnHujhaUmHnHuj`UmHnHujn`UmHnHuj_UmHnHujUmHnHu mHnHu jU5!'YZ Y4:v-s$ O % ! $ ! # ! " !  ! $a$L^L==/0123hi56789VWqrstujJfUmHnHujeUmHnHujPeUmHnHujdUmHnHujVdUmHnHujcUmHnHuj\cUmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHujbUmHnHu2  '()+,RSmnoqr    " # . / I J K M N ^ _ y z { } ~ jiUmHnHuj8iUmHnHujhUmHnHuj>hUmHnHujgUmHnHujDgUmHnHujfUmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHu7O   D u  = m # S < r :r ! " ! # !     # $ > ? @ B C T U o p q s t jmUmHnHuj mUmHnHujlUmHnHuj&lUmHnHujkUmHnHuj,kUmHnHujjUmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHuj2jUmHnHu2     7 8 9 ; < L M g h i k l y z      ! " 2 3 M N O Q R b c } jqUmHnHujpUmHnHujpUmHnHujoUmHnHujoUmHnHujnUmHnHujnUmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHu7} ~       6 7 8 : ; Q R l m n p q | } jtUmHnHujstUmHnHujsUmHnHujysUmHnHujrUmHnHujrUmHnHujrUmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHujqUmHnHu2 45689QRlmnpq"#$&':;Uj[xUmHnHujwUmHnHujawUmHnHujvUmHnHujgvUmHnHujuUmHnHujmuUmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHu7r([ TU!`&l$ ! # !  ! " ! UVWYZde34NOPRShijC|UmHnHuj{UmHnHujI{UmHnHujzUmHnHujOzUmHnHujyUmHnHujUyUmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHujxUmHnHu245OPQSTfg ?@ZjUmHnHuj1UmHnHuj~UmHnHuj7~UmHnHuj}UmHnHuj=}UmHnHuj|UmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHu7Z[\^_ !"$%KLfghjkz{ jUmHnHujUmHnHujUmHnHujUmHnHujUmHnHuj%UmHnHujUmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHuj+UmHnHu2    9:;=>VWqrsuv-.HIJLM^_yz{}~jUmHnHujUmHnHujUmHnHujUmHnHuj UmHnHujUmHnHujUmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHu7?wNaZP{x" ! # ! % ! $ ! @A[\]_`st9:TUjUmHnHujlUmHnHujUmHnHujrUmHnHujUmHnHujxUmHnHujUmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHuj~UmHnHu2UVXYij    /0JKLNOZ[uvwyzWXrjTUmHnHuj׍UmHnHujZUmHnHuj݌UmHnHuj`UmHnHujUmHnHujfUmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHu7rstvw%&@ABDEWXrstvw :;j<UmHnHujUmHnHujBUmHnHujŐUmHnHujHUmHnHujˏUmHnHujNUmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHujюUmHnHu2Fx@8k.k a&] : % ! $ !  ! " ! # ! ;<>?uv23467JKefgij (jUmHnHuj*UmHnHujUmHnHuj0UmHnHujUmHnHuj6UmHnHujUmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHu7()*,-JKefgijwx   @A[\]_`|}jUmHnHujUmHnHujUmHnHujUmHnHujUmHnHujUmHnHujUmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHuj$UmHnHu2 !"$%<=WXY[\|}       4 5 6 8 9 J K e f g i j jUmHnHuj}UmHnHujUmHnHujUmHnHujUmHnHujUmHnHuj UmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHu7: k "!o!!!5"c"""#;###$]$$$%%c%%% &7&h&% ! $ ! " ! # !  !!!!! !!!N!O!i!j!k!m!n!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!""/"0"1"3"4"B"C"]"^"jUmHnHujeUmHnHujUmHnHujkUmHnHujUmHnHujqUmHnHujUmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHujwUmHnHu2^"_"a"b"v"w"""""""""""""""""""###5#6#7#9#:#b#c#}#~################$$<$=$W$jMUmHnHujУUmHnHujSUmHnHuj֢UmHnHujYUmHnHujܡUmHnHuj_UmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHu7W$X$Y$[$\$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$%%% %!%#%$%B%C%]%^%_%a%b%v%w%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%&&j5UmHnHujUmHnHuj;UmHnHujUmHnHujAUmHnHujĥUmHnHujGUmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHujʤUmHnHu2&&& &&&1&2&3&5&6&G&H&b&c&d&f&g&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& '!';'<'='?'@'W'X'r's't'v'w'''''''''''jUmHnHuj#UmHnHujUmHnHuj)UmHnHujUmHnHuj/UmHnHujUmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHu7h&&&A'x'''(a((((,)p))*C*u** +9+v++,5,w,, ! " ! # ! $ ! % ! '''''''(((((@(A([(\(](_(`(t(u(((((((((((((((((((( ) )&)')()*)+)O)P)j)k)jUmHnHuj UmHnHujUmHnHujUmHnHujUmHnHujUmHnHujUmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHujUmHnHu2k)l)n)o)))))))))) * * * **"*#*=*>*?*A*B*T*U*o*p*q*s*t**********+++++++3+4+5+7+8+U+V+p+jUmHnHujvUmHnHujUmHnHuj|UmHnHujUmHnHujUmHnHujUmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHu7p+q+r+t+u+++++++++++++,,,,/,0,1,3,4,V,W,q,r,s,u,v,,,,,,,,,,--- - -=->-X-Y-j۶UmHnHuj^UmHnHujUmHnHujdUmHnHujUmHnHujjUmHnHujUmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHujpUmHnHu2, -^-- .?.z.../X///0Y000B1112G222,3~33% ! " !  ! $ ! # ! Y-Z-\-]----------... . ...9.:.;.=.>.Y.Z.t.u.v.x.y................./////7/8/R/jFUmHnHujɹUmHnHujLUmHnHujϸUmHnHujRUmHnHujշUmHnHujXUmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHu7R/S/T/V/W/k/l///////////////000008090S0T0U0W0X0u0v0000000000000!1"1<1=1j.UmHnHujUmHnHuj4UmHnHujUmHnHuj:UmHnHujUmHnHuj@UmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHujúUmHnHu2=1>1@1A1g1h111111111111111 2 2 222&2'2A2B2C2E2F2{2|2222222222222 3 3&3'3(3*3+3]3^3x3jUmHnHujUmHnHujUmHnHuj"UmHnHujUmHnHuj(UmHnHujUmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHu7x3y3z3|3}333333333344 4 4 4I4J4d4e4f4h4i4444444444555 5 55565P5Q5R5T5U5q5r555jUmHnHujUmHnHujUmHnHuj UmHnHujUmHnHujUmHnHujUmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHujUmHnHu23 4j44 5V5556t666:777768}888 9F99991:: ! " ! # ! % ! $ ! 555555555555566666S6T6n6o6p6r6s666666666666666774757678797`7a7{7|7}777777jUmHnHujoUmHnHujUmHnHujuUmHnHujUmHnHuj{UmHnHujUmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHu7777777777777880818284858\8]8w8x8y8{8|8888888888888888899999%9&9@9A9jUmHnHujWUmHnHujUmHnHuj]UmHnHujUmHnHujcUmHnHujUmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHujiUmHnHu2A9B9D9E9f9g99999999999999999999::+:,:-:/:0:e:f:::::::::::::;;!;";#;%;&;D;E;_;j?UmHnHujUmHnHujEUmHnHujUmHnHujKUmHnHujUmHnHujQUmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHu7::';e;;;:<n<<<=H=u====>>>B>?e@"BBDh^hh^h^$a$ ! " ! # ! $ ! _;`;a;c;d;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;<<4<5<6<8<9<M<N<h<i<j<l<m<v<w<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<==j'UmHnHujUmHnHuj-UmHnHujUmHnHuj3UmHnHujUmHnHuj9UmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHujUmHnHu2===='=(=B=C=D=F=G=T=U=o=p=q=s=t========================&G'GGGGGGHHHHHHH5I6IfI0J jUjU jUjUmHnHujUmHnHujUmHnHuj!UmHnHujUmHnHu mHnHujUmHnHu9DEFFGHHH+IIIIIhJJ.KKK LLLL,N^^^^^^h^hh^h^^fIgIhIIIJJWJXJYJfJgJhJiJJJJJJJJK K!K,K-K.K/KtKuKvKKKKKKKL L L+L,LsLtLuLLL&Q'QHQIQJQUQVQSSTTT!T"TLTMTTTTTjUjUjUjUj Uj%UjUjUj"U0J jUjUB,N/OOOOPQWQRRSS#T9TToVXXXXfXX"YpYYaZ!h^hh^h^h^h^TT__%`&`'`R`S`ΛϛIJMNOYZst;<klmj?UjUj5UjUjUjUjUjU0J jzU jUCaZlZ[\]],^^__T`Z`e``bbc9dCdddeggh0ii^^h^hh^hh^hii'jvjjXkaklm'nknnnQo`ofoSp\ppprsssssuh^hh^h^^uuwvvvvvx!z)z2z#{2{p|v||k~Հ U`pу^h^hh^hуą[χ؇.ẅԈ$2 SɍލIXdŏ^^h^hŏWgN]-5:E\hƚh^h^^Лr۟on4C'00^^h^hh^h^!h^hĪάԬ!(̱ͱqz۴i1Psh^h^h^h^^^^ ;AX;[w8`=Ja!h^hh^h^h^hh^hQ .8CLTZhmy^^h^hh^h&1Plmuyh^hh^hh^h^^T0Eu )3=X^^^h^h^h^hh^h./STcdestz{}~,-`abnov w        PQR]jUj>UjUjUj#UjZUjUjUjmU0J jUjhUBX stCHS`:^^^^h^hh^h^:4dYn+3h^hh^h^^3HlkLo /5 ^^h^hh^h^^^^^ V}5B~py_s6^^^^h^hh^h6  D      C l   _vGHM_^^h^hh^h]^[\]lmJKLWX!!!!!"";"<"o"p"q"x"y""""""#### $ $$$$f$g$$$$$$%%}%~%%%%&&V&jUjUjDUjEUjUjoUjnUjU0J jU jUC_vntYe}  N!O!R!!h^h^^^h^hh^h!"-"z"" #-#D####$0$X$$$%%% &g&}&&''H''^^h^hh^h^^V&W&X&e&f&&&'''%'&'V'W''''''((l(m(n(y(z(o)p))))%*&*G*H****++B+C++++++C,D,l,m,n,,,,, -----H-I-----jtUjsUjUjUjUjUjUjUjU0J jUj5UB'''({((M)a)'*9* +4++ ,5,,,,-:---. .T.^h^h^^^^^h^h-------....A.B.C.R.S.n.o......//X/Y/Z/c/d/x/y/ 0!0"0H0I0r0s000000 1 1G1H1I1S1T1P3Q33333399E:F:G:a:b:===6]j Uj Uj UjUjUjUjUj8U0J juU jUCT.`...e/J0d000U1i1x11m223B3334d55 6<6(7h^h^!h^hh^hh^h^^(77P8X8899c:U;Y;_;d<<j=z==========&$a$^!^h^h^h^h 1h/ =!"#$%_DdL,K  C A C:\Documents and Settings\Gregory Thomas\My Documents\0docs\HUD\tempFile.bmpb^C( 3g #1WS^D6n^C( 3g #1WSPNG  IHDRQsRGBIDATx^ ŕ{_ih\(* 2 2GhŅq6qAb\b&1jԿhb#hê*"MC7Bwݷfj޹S}ާnNU}]{99K!`!`d 2!`!`0ƮC0 C(Lɨ!` 7v !`@F!`MFM 0 C0Lk0 C02 n2j:m0!`!c~n"0 C06mjll Ž{OҢ'&ܤ4Y' C0_~X џoH9aWvBn !`wyi7@|1wws1C0 C i̚5裏.++ .{뭷PCYE`Y56XC0 pWsEٵkWuu9#% Š|Rwux?\|(qg}^poݫVm~ rRЙp5Sm5 C $ oꕗ0Υ^K 3psZ<?0̙g5xw~xРAP ٭޺hѢm"569M9{~x#u}G=l!4&[fi!>={D yPx tm˖-q!߹sg2˖-;ҥ J{իWs1El'Ͽۿ͙3eó`ss lZq j?̠4&3Fa! }: '0|YH3{ǢAm¦k׮+VDZ2 i[Z3o9d<ڰRi5]YC CXnݒRzS lSXܩDV̚rBU[?K;wwT>z|'3Ξ]u`;ƿ?x 嬉3cmY D%|;j $_{ɦj3}ּ/ك8z%i\tEH&banan}@Z"K 8:#:d{+9nw!7&ώ-kCg3gMo@z*{|(^^* Pv)ԥw[D8ѣ6sQ'N$p9@೅or~N[>b}C?nٗ A^eKA Z<κ#}6RUnX*^>|oߡw_wp[ϯ%C "zM)\ ˗/k 7bn11 "KOFXtҮ=_rurB@gQop=5- Y9c3qp^ܽ{w3n|i0 n`@#:QN9{>lZ_he>_g{Xҥ{tfiwX:kwhOjq&k+aǂ!CN;40Q#`MYECH%q:;=ettچ$t3_VmEyCI߹mhnN,Zu~gt‡u+jQI5cFQga p)GO[dϮǜFԽ7gY2 T!`T!oOje"l|:!}p}sn#6)%CHSLIӉn;Ae>u0:D!2CH%xㇿ>qd7qExy𑣴a 4u }8㹘s?xb^sĉos%,̉_fͧHbt7eENjN|8)֥,D47Y86dC 8;~ 6CH&$ Zcl C% Zcld&d, lCe)~{؄QNFf~F?ώ0ZG`lni|s 9F''~$\(PU=Uk!n 706C @ AjᇟNz-r/Yq߿X k-)=qir*p 7:6,C @jY0~xce7/ͮag__T'P\󆣗>م 756ZC 3@jaMJȈ[ qZrz*}fd0nvm@"0|^SN8g,pWI!.CBcC2 sMmc5|cwM-cXtq޽o C &(CtODX5۷Lѿ]Y 7Y36PCg<3/jr|֯(r9g}Qַj!?L0"A`O>q<}˺HvϮ|`]?G=YɷK,y衇֭Kw?]wGfts7xzCڣb˺ݻvy;6-n}L&$Vcj[5jĉ_0L-2o޼ ! ŷ{ o3Έ/%9]uYRtI+Z~C͈_?Se˖<Pɗ_~ٹs!fժUt#H(7]vfя~z{aH!+V(..N(a2_r% O>Ѽ SD3YJV}s//B-fs۩t!~2?裼~aI%OH(EEEuuu m"|vqw7_=̬oI|w&L{[oEO8}\Uz)77 7!ɓ_׶4:7"RΏc|_Ur, DœO>wdHD$/t >0YVp~_|{_Mo3<_u^9Ӗ-[ib"$hHk:ȿn$A)|mM4dzwpK@\ehL pwWG$/jWn0ט>}6ǒ_fMUU#cR3g"رc oV8?3A"^~SI- gy]Vפn Uv㧟~:bddkѪ,oP_׿fnܸqlۆ !3.SIJԤIfΜ !x;SzJ^{-F;w.}mu]̗S$Ș\DsjÆ ӦMQTʮu]J>&֢!g-?!U>#Ñ餓NhYQ]w0J*v,'p} Jx?_=HǙu ًPQ%&9SC_ Hnb7SWWK\.^a"`Rq~`;C A5R:y .ot{w/oV%xiuuC4/2uHj {9->/B2b,Ҍ:L Ica>HVSSQ1.YYzu[t6.E2A/rB cj(w %k]H9,)m"]J |e);YYDC·ߥvØqA47qј!W&ZIH׍!:LIֲ!,,XNc:}YNo+74> ؑ:YQ`$[J&:A\rK?_y8S,E|AӽN,!@iq%phhnO خ(c[6n,%s駇'*m+[Cak @=>zI0Yqpأ؇׎u)04Hs%%%Iӂ/҇vw ƌCs^h]3~7o93(WUӟT8{x2`H9~f=Z>.t:// \ↆ':&$47^F`d2Dkn몥d]Űaü0Wq@ߺvY.QD"#pM4dƐjJӧ˳ t-!NN //9ܥaoIka{\/@!nyq#-U܄z%'$L !iٱ蠶R\Fc#@<)|Sg'F8yՔÇ*PK򆞵$e2/}$;wuܥSinSGNu#/2>!" $a~ڄm@B{Ex1b֬Y i&f&܄!ޠ|w9-=`c"swT[ Sw>$+̘^L4$oP{7wuH 1>{ĉ/ӄLLe/۔ f⾳:LaXounR8/ִ! ``MZ'~$;v /+ƁXuC'AO&ºa@jx7OMI jb0&1WCgcOTЯvḩ(; T~iu "`_geܖmMH-lfѦS=S2_XaLq)'Q9)3C?&Sh t0r693Sp>~x|ȼۜb섊l k8B?!`x0ƮC @<" )lwhsa'Fkqf>p6BCHOLIy^ (XT2hhWKm>GXfș2e x"yVXBxWS-Zlm%|OP"!<206Ha ˟ȘE1;}! %1ܨ$"r-~^,Tz_{CvNk&xuק;$&ܤ Z gS–:_WlTlCtʉ6l 8DwbFɸq<åƒ>:vip#F7 DyW*}M7r$ `ˏ%ԥ md$=c)Wra0G+#aCjU k?/l\ O>?[G.(KW H C0 wuA_%$3#saɆ|UUԩS*V =u%pi_, W_}5"]vQraKMF8 @I9i<s~CpH!ZpOj< BBC9Ϫs_{ف_\3s~LI߹qFV%N9;C VX[eLn-@Y0.Lڑ>}tރ/$gqr/ p S%9pC{B#qۨX䯁Sܡ!|AEE_7o,*_ >r'O(3PuM͛/;rKuc^P,sg=7Mx⋐y<%#w'^V۲TӐ,w<pD;s.x3H Gq@|%А _/ u 8JA2VB`ŔjќיuT+<%)Ig)Dl9U[ y͍r\_-û~y 7)5| '>Qǧ! vu1Nf̘b=UL}.MCsȟNj?PtL.v}-_aч`[-KY 8#?䘶6k/έ;C #cПYGs82_4~"&%WP["+ur%jTIC(9@-CsE{9ҋ>oٻ)LԄoi|§Ǎ侖7^Ə>(/$@2dxoS'OFv̽&Uw&[y y!I۝gv\˓KJCg(Cpl6 ;,kYh48jpBިH=[P:Rq?28:@ Qs?nucY;!`x߰ ݼă/"<9'8ZcZ]ERs_^I!Wxdp;^םm [h]\,HȣbbhS]ĮiTç06˖-Hxbb I|KxϪ!o)ATbǙ<#EZZr_DaU7ugM J B@-pd:Zѣ}NW#ۼRW] : K]*H7q iAN r(xJ![ 3LiNm2k#ys3L˳҇t^5(9gh}]u l+|yŞM?/6|Gp-Z5\u E3NQl˱)RL(gch!Ay[MptǽJxq n^ۊ j%d\!|teR9Xꦯs?nqedNѐq"GG@3 ۾\_{굵o~a}^mw^2nҴV|B9زTB5@&#n(++qƻizA?&OTnZ,]{@*kR˅^x}tMlEKf@Fhqg- ؔ.|TA!]ZQXj96UٹC7聽ZΰY죏>pF5HEU׶o/b՗y ;m+ww}srs]Q2v|mEZ47"f@F!&dQSMC8‡ۈB\k"pM"PcC(|>v$ 0_:4MѰa#qMfޘ% к?) qիtH-5eŪ}\H 6xлKVu:uk-zcк  7 @,*q7|szzl-fZT8(ZڪVR teL vwaGc=x!7U-]Ł4P!AMI&KNЁ+19FBQ9<;Ao1رGXx﷧7c{&RcSN ܔS9Wx =Lwy'B(wy Ɋ 9,KKBˤB8hsryy9́.E {NZS|v{3]Yd;&*$1f i9K-,ٗ/_#K>7f\IΪ(|dNjm޲hڝwvM_y_-VڨoM5!`äQBe4#Wo_/)G !(udQd$Pe[J䃇jHD:VTWRXPEK;][ץ8_Y$HB/ N1 !E@9b(qXTK[htr=-)𭗻:']s+ 7Y~S G yņ?U`%9_y'^|_O'9jĀ(Z`acfhM8"Hs_ H Kn"Fp;+6H'Xqs uNݵ&)fc]͍GZAq?(etl[*ͮinF"-zNaek1k_uSN{KXczNyy_[7 ?a2(8ӺTumU% u9XRUջvҩ4)أwCHNJqZ+o5oӦ^cǎe  ;wSrCʥv0p)W72C-;^@~h+llh 7rr6bė}F3B./p\Fl7x㡇6m1d[g٭.ϵ fv(-2W&Z|+NBa-T45k&1Ǵn?{wgEZnHmh67>;kف*ϴo~ B"<;<9҉%{ VH a{˹?ˎF&\`Y/"N=Ulc۲v&&"0"%; )47I2ZG+NY< yβ%@N`LJ'aل)hqs.Ymp@K1ի0cykƀ0kv#(DC(# Y#52s9r Y{t=1H>\f5 HDgϦoIdBe(@kRGsϙ.ʽn6!c6Cb+Yo)&ڒ;܃. ;5A;_w):e0;Vqg87{7N{!yqo-&$ jkhᆧƍ_S e B :$+VM0&ϗ Eq,d8+Fuy|×G>(>=c9Jf6L;>dQpFfĉ)m۶Yt){~u+v5u+KnQ¯'Oe&׈ #ŋfXi%?xpG*dfw3ZH6!UrA9zrCfѐ%*3g|5EW^bI%C@ Fj#Fc"ܸ%`44`a g)pHAGpiw]S^^ԜĠpQz܃AY#RHkHШɠ*Hkp: M9L64CƖl}81WineWs3gص <0Rkahʔ)<4wE #SO=甎PH_fKJʣin%e͹xJNesPS'R^Msw?pPnЏaW2oqJЅx3ȩ)gYhtJL v+~X([VQTjcuӏ(lK ڣqVL{57NC#L! :hHŒtRz3*R#%z&ȜQ8#6c~]f֟إ{Aֽ^E= ͵%jLyurA͐Pهĵچ8QpNH(&ϻ4ڵk 9qH{}cèGWі-3j9xU dL[p*vtL¯%aW[/{R{ҽ?<,W # 7gu MF^Lċ/|5n|5֙JF_ңGiɻ¢CKs rt[iٜYK+p>VFi$f:~M/cC 7 juAqqq1 _)GAMpXFj-c60pI.EwTճɶ!`GfO֚77^[UFM *#4 C0|o9>bܲEbc;] _8`VA~̬`s ߲o]|xnummC}c0PpBiC0 C z01&!Y0Z$e$W;9#N"fAYϦMpN]8EKz:>޴kڦwW~{+Wi,{yquYIFDЄ*i!`Vm".JXmTśGp\Jp|^sf|Ds!iN,\P<;/+hk^ɠ%={Ww]"cM`ި!ZAP!W SNRnDl Aݲcq0bC0  յ^ a ūGQA/QƠ"ا[Qt-+KMig͍k6:g@J76M!\[*G#f#3f3#9`X$\I?-J-'zc#߳>K<2QlrİE"Cp8 JA@C8hNQ3$sr0דN#> $k#[*v0Cqf:Ve#dԂqC:G(YTB@!FgϞ ()/ Ⱥw.1E򓄤 6Li"P_NHbG"!`oy,'%3v8mmO߱q/wV[+%MJ`F AlnbKC`x0MV_ `7%T_^9پ߂ϛkέ65Fe!0& Iraf$&R^$~+avU*p̀pecuު{MΆ8 iλ궘x7aSl6-ʹwĜ[oݫVm~ b!3罋/3lf/o/gt=^ +J>idދS+YKgIٳgsVdv1 u]੧;v+.[=F8zl +f & 1  S]%$2.p1w("/^&l}'Q `2)jSw''~̊H״5ydHq#.6wpꌦ+Dؔ47TU1;1)*Y@y2f_Q߄pc;3Ryof0eCxi c^^uW"}wx{$Vp Lk٪GvÓxsdUCKܯ.Ғ?, t%pJot& NV̂bNlܸqgZpеkN8! C/sDŽa$'M28njTN6]!F\`"ÑZ1k!PW_}YgEE7p]bYaM1w8MDg MuCK7!e."¹&q> C- ׹- )%k˜Up8xDԙp5 `M@n)YA ʋӉ5j7Kg^'mj:K!@{:<0^= ]iNJ*G%< yŝrkPFv0=byL$C @86TC-{.ϛ-[v JNU%YGUiSҚ{XIeعpIr{wJa4i4yp?Rk\klfђN9 r2D\ [Ȉ: e$R#Jrm)b%HIRӈtעwԬ;*"Ay-]'#bk~Ff禛nDFƋd-_{r}:ދSST,G6]C6a@;ٚ\""5NlG8#h4]< Ł$7!z#or J#p$iQRdR(7lM"E/Ύ fdiy$,c""`[hF^^*Kz&'i>l0 UU%%QUk.Js=Kk;{rK+<T]mmmqqHu>?8DQYvX|/qĩO SApg0'b B9R% 0QZ/W,'H7Rt!Q*Hꎒr$ -OK3D~ZD/+Q u &\uU4d~TQPzˮo >{7{G`ZZ p 2W,}ZC 0&,yEnD/JKKCz=k,rI&Ҭ =crI]峞 W0<%j5tR(qIۥdMuHϛ7OQI B&f^b pJ Pы >_j D$ZA^tG!{Udh;qٮθPUXi#>}¶>h9NVTދEbBꍔ|0shɒ%aĴJA?ɝ;w>Ț<kNzc]f|U]:OU- <.grZJqZJ>ΘpupsG\һwH1(Q`r^6sp):bi\ZUjT7rhM* 736E`֭:;-"Z5SzVT0{g6IDO=9"y8 H>@CAz3τد<$oعev-镹eV4/$3(Ng|ch ieF޻i ChSR׌rBFAVA}ȯk׮ 'Ol͙S1|7G~KT%3gd ץ!J[kqF8j #!$İU?{XP XXH" y5XQx7aMs̎3m+sHQQQG-J ڽ) -Z~F<;7Cr!|Fѱlq&#giio|_Wvꩧ.ygꚱd&d$2va(H\WWNA&2/&Ă5Z"`RvUi@eXnLb4ϺhY 7Y6;\\!안hE[aډ޸#zL~3F>;=FV0 0&F_` 4~YxKQ;D#@32+ W_)7VSWdřruodA$Yo1t0 ClHfg1esߎ+ 9*6; 8#Ȩ!QN@8CY?dzaOo)9UOuul܆!`$n540kݜ(TG@֕pHBU,@GA*UBB(ܷ lN ݎkwy+Z'gc @f P~kMjfzuK>r}o7Օל[;mjf7QpnVˏ(pY1=H{! %qa>I@%' %h$ݑ`NuG8rĖ&J^!+ڳd"bhB ݼpqFxIЭ/SAL·ɃRï:b~ 67/P-{~֥V67Ek}rkkt .\q7aL F஻RHj9G8D@-((_"Frq &>^F&[/Qm wJHАNܭ7矏U%{*7ͪUٕT'1TUʽUܐ Nz8h*[Wk}uKkj.~mœ~wܯ \uK+7mVVfKϿo/ًW|&Ifp@Z;.ޘJy Diͪd<`(r@[m(hOByN4U+(TdG+hj1CۊZY)t9 z:!,dLUv9r–-,cC`ujHŒuT䣭y% TY\u;́&:@nhɂ#s?6f 7<6})y"U^gwgPZLG7D? gk|ha३%NW_}5dvg ZE9+=zB˒ϙQBER8"AF~ƍO=-"0 gG0 f|ܸfCsT/*X?t`^`dSҚ{X fCq6~E 2e 7<ð'jx̂Rm3U4]ZQXܜ@S_1qSb i"/,,4!֒<fЭ(QxuAv97u\a"Rw:g%^p#gɭ$$4RpOv;%4U4r"(-x`3;NAznm @Jd@ġÇgeC08GQ_򧕕5]]X޻AW8,*]ӎG}m}8rȾQgg2&;=Gf(ć {R(%|N4g=(2dC@g < VƩ'ͤSWQOQ'*G UL0,C1n= oug>x{v9_y'^|_O'9jN~&Ô!KhYȰPN>px#+`d1FGd:]vZ%P"JT Pw<| -h_,{g(mY*vaYjܕw45K+cN8漖ܹsر(<,GXr0& '=̗_Z<[*wTwfkɒ%A̙p7\pGغz7!'.^9>LZ !͊ %#ٷUlðl{ <뉗]vY42C n]z<&gvܱ웑]峞 Wr֭wMWsfM" :q-Aepb`ɰEe1X:w^r T1#^Ğr*LSD@rVRKXbd!qrޝа #k8v*++۔p` !^ n|kOwE)O6j67Y88twB7gNgƔ-~wSݶڟ'xd:v>Þ: JUUr6H$4ں79 9I#DM 6qrQI -`O┪ކԱ Xr z,f8nh9oa{ȷZIxa^28LGfM5Ά@`so~:Dյ?\g/ac;NVW^^N9g a H!5yt3~xzM&b?ALҨPٴjtyy9́.E {NZS| 5:ݻ=  @"`RO駟uK y8m'#p˾^gA=o]u(W3yg[:v^r*C!=r_MG]ٻN'u8e5%9GSXr&8EVR8M`݌bDmVԖڊh .8D47vU!bxnЭ}"D /Tx%Յ!ŻO]uQZQiD< _ ~0%;C[ KH!*-/|HKQJ"Z DA47q PE7qᙾLٳ: ͓?9 H'NI_%5GA_vز ^J Fy 2g;tS.=7&]f*YAXpj5>G͕/2E\M./5 78qDD6Ŏ=!`@MV`nH6z(HV@(a ]T@Tf1/-[L[n噂 I0Y^+" 7C4 S"IZEs1Ϥi"hl qr3&xgEk78A@MiqδN:vlnqһ+IiCE/bGhV7ĺͨ +}ݭX!7dk+%RМ"(A`bqI6"No@ @n p?;d ЄAm zP%F.Sa!Qwrض!Mi~PW]Cx`[VNiKCHܹifO֚77^[U; [yO5]i\X(9qDu=v~*ݭ.TBJ( O!BU%kz}[TdNG[}ry?I'd=R4oܾpo=EK6ZG]K#ee#`14 6RYZxAmI 6ĪU/U;cĢ.秮;vF8![Fa"9_Î̝&[Ź(lBD%G2'v]T/vO}>5e//.+)KMI%v[hSSTi'{38#h*avkD#p폺xXYC Fy-gњ6@KS!>zPzO:%3Tĸ`ѢE3f/z>Jۑީ0a]G[J-(޳w8j=m ~j5ҍ7n߾i#v!PGIo kxđɓׯ_C{D4i?O\ܰ4e&,ybL[\?prIs;RbTַhڶm [[Tedj >uGGAS*xP {Qީ𐁽Gsdi׏90?/pA])@|ALzm˷o Ph2<}cF(agtFs^$45vIl7%jRjT%:QEAa-=*dߘ9{64)-`{_ cWC%ܝm38ruCձ8J NO$kBt3bap݁CꗿeI`РA6ipv aw#>1M:WeMeCI!t#Ъ@sANp3k֬QC&D 71i3}RLA裏DƄLU! p hc0RFK&ܤk0Z"`vU!`@F!`MFM 0B@%P 2^_olL?Kh$6M4ِ' 7?6@Cط}Ÿ{ E?~x2o]aDnH'P*oPFڻwoq„ t[j8jnv~X/j|}WW^snBז}K՞HoC C +@sî.xMpg5yYQn 4HCxD$jWC%АĈ#EŵGB F!dį–߭^X ۾\_{굵o~a}>'-;v;s̊l+xbp5@ [Y  *;wy)%B. Ȱ|CŋTEHܴ.\  bPaː< Ѧ( `a.(R5LU`" jCp4o O?}ĉzҊ¢6W*\!׍p^ MͿ}kMQqINŅg+OYin2`m!.G}D,!,ëH"kК > 2w0"B;ʽ%T2drA|??8:plbeO$]"$W6l496 -Ypd8~ކBh񹻮qfF-!`pZ~G}]Acn[ p3 ҹs*847>A+qs\y(.:*J<=$WBljH+Dn+ >$^d\DiB ŁGVAc0$71A Cω"):.).|TQPzˮo >{7{G|kVW9?g8'eH;LI)BӁ9sb`ddܸq:)!T֭S["S2wkvW ; '%N9VT!i&juuh",\PQc.B"n"lypx/k-xEZ%n-(*]ӎG}m}8rH6T^Ɏ?#ޮqNlY*;=+F/hFG$ߩ0x2EAR]q!C TWWC38xp %1h9u!Ku0i&ŗ.dSEkdWI @u9J6Yq%%`nPxD&j;ե{^TWRXPEK;][ץ8?UYj =w 7v d,3LoT֏=( ڵ-88vg^z(A:AO(r UDTDyS!2vo`<9bN~M*Q35O7н4P}*T~^7(?fH.lqC1(l,,_Q#exnܸyHMM ,9;ڀ*.:ԩS9bgVO>bg_*# V耪P)J艷]josYe&"tX e'zP-Z2 7Iٚd:WQ??T9v{~(;>jV4&RZҳSu1! lYʮC n `s4Ɇ~m]nki,!^)^f u"YfLj"569M9{~x#Np†^ymg}6shaF`@0]hvf.8nE"n~$;wuܥSinSGyiqGuoq w\G,d[L J )83%}D,K!JӈM%oIkقUŹ+i 6jV>vǘ4py `MJ`F}o)S(/:y'YRY;oa*ĕw>$rfר^z% >LY+܄Dwj #*2 9^q/ɽ ܢm;q}8%CL x!0qħ~„XN)VW @PLիW{@/$. ɊHN9&jX0@,M,Y]"?4KI@oEBa[PrXOt UH0ˆ5JVi9c䠃zφlLI6֞!`I@@~ H,BO#ZubpW ;]'[O0 CUlY. C ?ܖbBp_4l_?[[ݩnO1ߪqG47q!J޹sg{N8b 8"υ8X@0MKsK.&^}$$sk0 _6Ecg>K3gL94in9/+C z/kzU7dxJxZU)b޳ؽ47A*q{lYڴi]X4  ],.á%MsC LLs&PFf$ +t76+h֟4iR8}֪oݫVm~ l޲c#;wΩ]nӨфIٻOVâ%)'ٸOQSMJ%{0J^-̹T8sk4IB47Iښ1D@ ;ry )29ᜮJ qܸqK'CL!Y(2QQ8\'O"Nv{¿o)*.ө0aޱ&̙m Nps%pCX4&xfƉ"ͫrN8vw/^و(ix%Vɥ^ ~Xbfph"q 8QsXD#`D#l Pr\xq񫪪kE2ס˜k+ι€#9@SpEnhɂ#s?67'oi&AFe,YL 9r$BD!r%ٴ Lv1ŕ*q1)I6wJ\@YhڸZ llF_Ou. ݆|7D.l+"uwN[qΩ \69uyƦv !u%#h z֭KW32*Wp2KNέJhJTs=e[8&زTj Veo7 3W$sgJm9[.beEŹ6Vw1϶tϡ=G祭1Ĭ 5~w>N]w~3eΜ6mkOoK{ 2l[`s`{>,Q+Rbьވe)lhOWKtZ@|0&x7C r5V]ЖwTw76(~oۘZ|l.ػ"h[ mVIg}v¯b(S 7B5ZA U4z }X>`}yJ{:3wlݭmgaM,tg{Nv|e`u㈀ 7qXY, ߰vĄX>  (QX]C?Azb_^9پ߂ϛkέ653vufO֚77^[U1Xi 7va~G`/j;GnKOhC[[][PhNs:ӳ&ܤY |0͛7Kh|͔x;İy;'inʩ߫cwb6ᗽcŵo0U-mq˟qxmڵwmSѻ+=+4qnE "^]⼐?KEE;_D^Q .zo;_jGd'D_]2  }\H3.8Cq+ˆ z.'2hCN9bN J>ښW2hlAI@]|35憀nz0*Dg$i4˞p\^|=pFJo-=f7DǕzjqa(L䟚mgy& {qDB^v*\rǝ ))#0Sf|ܸfCsT/*X?t`X#`],~i` Za(#)pi9v45-;iM9dsl$.T--[@H2QL ´#!@mqxD1b)%mYZ >~EG AY2mO֊!>VaVC9d̙*U ZN;lڤT'k΢D|[ˏ6%)_Z0`qq~{t)=b8a"`M@!fw0;./i6> `_faDo J^zرcy<֣ӿJ`B?X6k~Cpk׮e~topY2n2ufm\@{1=~x\N<:BFkgM߾} ŀgܒ!pSgmE>"3(R\Z]Ua/L{O(! DEaü-i}!`n1Lp! m' W\eI"E'L4Z.8ыk > ᥳd+fw@L5(0/e 9s5QWW/>:.B q 0Ƈb]J V|rN/o]E>}6m-l 0uT\-_\ +5/;8ǭg̘1zh[L0IZm;t!ز/W]WP,\ĝ=â0;odqDe̋R16VQ"`MY @U el&AJ;م^"5K~EA`;x`Lnqn_8 G {xg}窫B݂Hu @:_#`K+dd H &IQsz_ kܯ}UQ"`MYtG@v*X`k y]J!O V8~TE{cs=e2 0>sC6wiEaQgssM{v~~Ő ċ<;O9;-٤ōdÂ)z6|9n8!.;c=&MsJCJ%C7lA̅$yhOFշ|)̘r#nƚu]1y[K";w^˝Ō]q.;C-;yYK!0ydGF[U(콐K䙉SO=EI[kRm5Zia? ;;^7u(wOɌ;C;#LdXW C k%\Ƹ{[AQaF*63V8A 䡘D ;:J28qfPf}6 p1bi[ b /ݔ)S~Q~zdں#nRVJ0&%[k]]]tݻ7K}Fo-p`˲UW]GqG 2VFD#l @`ɒ% G:)**_|+/...C"j1{fp+/?ʼn@5'&IhŚ0G2JC \<Oa,V#Y(ܘᓋк̠8%[@ssG[lV' ;˷nꓱKOm06㱏ׄ14@&#@P9y [i0d\a}1fžˇKZ&&ԹIN\a6%T(*_Wo^[لe!&dې p`Aᦪjĉl nQy+:d߿w+Ҭ9pC\X$0ZGr*G b2*cJ@2TQFqT$UV qpBJ&Ĝ# kLX ?!@ Qu?)ya˂ߔo&MSK,Չ$S]|~G L}_3Z|(}݇>yPzj$@s!s|͙3I*L7fUK 7 ׉x4dxZmBL9rꯞt 76c_C ~4ȫ%GLGѠuf*,XӟW;?caKb[MUDfUoMM Cd<F`U! В>*Bj 5aMyRv9>9ۆ6.P蓄O?廥D *'.g#Yp!儈 /R,%HE޴ib d֘% lQqV"E`C")"d=t&/=oZ6h޲U;~Dg[OV#tef&mF?@j0&5*W|wn>"ա!BVV&[s&PFe@"~nܰ[;4 >`GO _`YO++fV6!`] !LP J0 "~}]@F"`96(C bxbsuE5^^bc޼yf) | 'l9Y #<t֬YhjnZN~~urrs]Q2v?zeDin*!g/|'NԪ_2D47!>& -^\SL OzQ .Bjoƍ{>}zh7iҊ¢6W*\!׍pP"`Nu0$\ꡀYgBO>2+@a7 +w̯$ӸWU ބ,pnXD11!pǢ`P̌1Owq:=r+ @TvGO7ވiWb~~cVزTZMu6NjUŹ+i 6jV>vtt'XڲTsƲ#&wMz/NbO;c9pLF(+W*g8 I~vOw-Z5*o˙OhSbnaΝbmMLoI6Nqq9Ɖ2â‚/ O^ڼ."ԥK3Pe%jIvmʠf9u1T@lځ&//9ܥaoIkAIM!_ʰ/r3KoM۲]i -Z0;@4Aq@ tdqF$./=i]<`Rw)w<&Z9úF`ĈinbЪZJL뵬2sf:Ɇ8[Κ sK^^RPl(޾˃KR?r!d[o k'DH![į;*)]Fn H󽛄tT~I^]1WޥjM.uuui uhLXEE_V{-"r~]_ 9X@R 7)ߚ]vŊKb7| 'SO~5,#W=P>S]3&F5{Ծfڪ7m]ߎ]zܓ/'VH#psjȑ#񒀬_|Q^Ur%fFSy]5̛8CBُ|BJPtk¹Ca$ -SdޯU~dɡ=l\߾/SOl(̠8 AqclwCEͪ!`Fb\XY'ijGl wڛ8ʻ.#g ZmqpA-]6ڻݕ_|ʕk^^\ݭ<guocV-U3cc`t 7cwv$2^CgyF(1D H9E!pG. .P.ΫV|(ȸi## jZ+W)'S)jѐl!FfT䣭yŃ.(޳ϫ۰, ÆfKrLIN 1$քSaPyW^  &LrtA8&l3vXcmZ{J`d0w\Iٳ'1{D=z4767q͆OP`ҍ]߯Q_:u* ·25A :F1E{C 1-D=R"vXx 񐁿;6N>]x{mzڴi^{kqxT ]QnNp^{߸+JƎoWss`&|qtWcϪ4h1#J?,XzF*^nI~XQP`ݐ'=9,Soܲdw0R{f̘`W!/H{!P!PTvۗ+wZO7ϋF Ʀ2G3P ފ٢ `.gYG:F&DU.ڷ܄gG}]hKX#=$)ǛJIU?M&fkxnR /$jrBy@nZrk!/}ކZ]u +V{=vt lÇ9 OX#@?9!yQ S߿ nqԑ,Q̰D"I,'QYL$e' 0?“v6Kiq,Bx!|؂t}1~>ԐK&(z+qʹ{'XrKC SjA D>y\:CE'QѨ|9P-kG9t3g.ou<gŝ{H,>,ːQ6.?XAAbZ$dWKVp/K28vj܊T 7|3,_OUo?3Əc lڴiΜ9Br +p'd@:T!bɋ#@yJ$E.AcW,XT]\W\] ,re]aPb@e˩nGGlUV!uS|$^nnчx?>'~}c?xBZ,*!ܜs9QO!:M\`4&G!iS:P|ᇟz΍G; 1b$x֞..NYl@pmpI' 9!18ղxIX0Mfu}bʄy߻'&B+/|`핕J6 u&!ذ#Q,raqG[B ?Qo;)0&?'s1>mm͙S1|7G~KTY6x!Yu#^t$);YxfaBx-ۢvs({邀 72SO!] /xbtkkk}?!'0 ƬHbj*/{"~76Q"`MY#δo"BQQQ+cn$ oܸ[0;q>s۸QCJ.~fj3( #I qXi?:w8o@Xwk8|¡i4rw :k~Em8c cAOueP;8rV{~FdzU3ޝFݷђ!h|wG%z?U`l?vl_2y!* G]֖koQ\FB`3@фl馛82z%W^y)S0 aw'^ hN(չ9=;W?bu= 7 `M>}؁{70h#'$U ,Tob\*G?GC$ Xk?PqX'#epHH8)cHơ@E2ܳre_(:< qZeH{}Pny(ΐKІ ¤ (27&I00&zfD̘1kDܔ'*?3rǷ#G6NJ#U8zJد-;g8! @كԲFF4F1!P K3"H `R3ש)r jc9 ] F%e ~"v%_,{2BJ-v񟷬8wN;Qٖ9G!L'~Ց`0h(e)J͜9ӫ4ht5;'7'n=o%cGLj 0&:ܬ}q}vOT|&DwxTaPV+^p/$O{*LԎi$c.᪫Rf pݼx .@npL,{#3d %`O?T0p^j!`67eQ"Ac9mڴW_}>J\!VlXa$|CFn<f`gMI!% >Mccc< &mh֐!C1B  B1bDK3÷'p$zuW#_uZycٕ'iH {n$p]WWa^CPO 9?vu#lº+d3bHDZpY{CZP"r^a7/(2Eݼy31#n /OQ*-ch6$8C7Ǐ#E]Nv!=:R7}QxNu)-)K@0& &nA:K/{8H$V\B<;o>P!BLsB3=[kjP3{mW6/66C0n4M!YpgQl)8 =R/,лln^[t]Kϭmkh @"@+/[y_]y͹Ӧpۙ 7IMD2 55`L^29EMLrx+Qu/t\pܹ*gN9YGҕITq !S\6ڻݕ_|ʕk^^\ݭ(IZ3! XӪ3a31f[!PTvۗ+wZO7KX+hF$M3<A^jS/ۗ/_Γ(toڴiΜ9lzg̘1zh mzg)cWG4(! ē&M`s odTWA1e8KFCov ֕|5x%={Ww])'f G!C$DN@Q0eRFj"569M9{~x#u}G4 7 u)H7fkذ-YEl,j1 G-N? ginݺÇLVT2py555 57ِɜՋ *8qoR B<ú_|A:䓑f,LZF=X ߩ1nqD8}%^~ڶΒT JϞ=YbxKzDxS~EG A=5cdJT!F-]C t$9:cb)Qs5)=ZUQRuehl+xFMg×'L8X\ܭߞu7]tJyT'V>z֬YI=~iZ0$̻ _2m?>Tւo6e]qF\^}|#)bqK-ǂibwKHBK2CQ%y[VQTjcuӏ(lK ڣq}g "`9M{G}Cct|绯8K nݚ9㴑G@c=VYv\Œlopz'Ɇ"1EWZ)'PHѤn{Yҫ=NuPCFc$[J`a٪a ٰG[הcýV$߀2/=kՑW\Kѩ0L kfΜnOݍkO?+3!~7?~y&$v2ZBj .<)Nm˃g:y6rKrb]i\Es1B I]r _י!0)HJm^gN\c? 0"Ns\RCCpjJrVw;;!g͏]DI@$-ڶ 'Z!Y Lko(YuЈ9l`D##8_oH P9P ;.SlL|_< Fm#f[;Ϲؚևo-jr]v`[Z7-SaPs +jRV/8#C(J^N&"x|*.+7VWRs%OPt79<gQaFJdD ɰGvK"۔Z,;tjlTtGDH +wK[(>XUURUջvҩ4)أwCIqpZ!;*n4F@͞=;;4ҭsNEx[M: +㻼&ܘp㕜dɯ=Ӗ|0 Q%59n>M P+0zxKfU x!`RB=>!#jReH-f"P`s ߲o]|xnummC]CkJ_|EB{5O7н4P}}ŗH3zy+}n)o{wR'{qw^}zΠqDX4ZaC "*GZX)[ha c)䉳pB'6mcc=2iCu6߾Y[:tol{||I/$$ Ǐ> q2In'qm&ƹH&YuC 0MLA CWgb6@a;l02z`G"#C={:bEk:IFt*_XWּAg TY\u^r H1PRu4w-ʗ?Ywx^m^qa-E{ 5KիE j'lmY*Ȥe)6`bG47cd$( 8YD=#޺-c{qއ'j+vtZ?$>ca$!\0;`Ѧ 7 7xN̈́~3=iP8WQ6ֆ!Wp1` BFidouMu6Yp%pTKkze?}ƕkYM-c-)0@>}0# >]0)<Q]NHd{ G ***\-ڔ&`]qC'~[kjP3{mW'q;NQְ122 uKnhX D)6xL  JOvB/tݰp%)&DX{ΤT] 0T]aRw#52aVl,'~b l@&QР jp Irh(TS"+fTT.!Jؤٽ?r+ ~Bd,6FhL'NgbhK!ʴky+v[vddlx:zdV_O]j9 Y\o #6ڻݕ_|ʕk^^\ݭ 22W8l @@57,M5$ 9sP1 I]Cb&,VvM64&D-D^q8Ey%y_ӵy]J[{%;R 7 G> aua@axI|$!{S(qO#Bm.Z8d|Sw%<8PWV @:Ӎ0 2 FtQ8WZ%>u:2Xpf'~ u6!n:7\yՁNnI4.ܹ<@6mD+H3:gq[~mܪD#ŀ( G7># {GΆ ڟe0Ae;PD &g}n\^eqvT²_vگ =y(NY[m!`Mܮd~lQ[<MEf #W VQ~H6x"JC=4n:8Sd-t 7cd!`d,U 6kRis6pcRHM줾o!mPnXXnUiE2<;܎S2u ̻-FcdH3hcI`b\9|Y`3zHp>(ص>i$"4 wJZsS C܈QN"!8S2,d/+ɱ'HQUmw42 XAQ%#> yUj^Q]=wC>ys`-G8gjCkN 0w"E87Z8e-t 7cdO>gYKh%^P|rMp C2rN9gw g[B g$*RH-ye>Hߠ=KG:!QpJ|ZA<)QCtfĈ44!ڊ(]Bd\&ƮqAL3>sN0?Vs  !RVY%BqQre!a 8Ύ-uiԭCѸ&jZ . `Lv»QzD18mX#*f v8N6_~JmtCq6]8 7?LATtDк;lS$XxwS CE_ª<Ĉ,H0e(T9kdP 7Lc+FG1{/ZdEE M)JNeDInt CVŸd}0bGlBwbI`y((#/2F/渏</*H12ꆀ!0͍] ib$RQ&;ZBƗq3 Cnb0c9ĸ >QN^60C */5ye~ >>o+9vԨY%C L,` y_,*lkd2"Iӱpfg ~0̓Qݻo"<+^{Oqd2 yr\)h:D@ n6xxҡBíZ.rjjUBTeL*!MPgAԪByk5h߼iZ>{qSCU׊# iC >uiIkJ:zl… 9ⲏvE9GP\G7ߌ'GyJ^*(= r>ђM.ex;*rrF!% 8(aoUUv{ %A)j %V Q) Sȸ^Ig ԯ@s魶+;ծD7'rWޡ*>;G ذy w?к.*>,I~4"uWSjAvW3w b$aN0G##\%ϓD(W=.k= Q"Ǡez JBFd"O9n%ܝ\pkw}HFJpO\} )vasWJ݈'/qʐ!Cp#0|ڀx⽍pņg7|@C"%!vݺu8"Q.zsCD }'uးP! q@g/ Y|N9ե,[ ;749м$uC"ϵňJS- 8iUQO0B.D$ Q>ظ[&-'I},Ghܸ@]>M>\ʵhh@kӋ߻8B(#G>c 12nEo!@uؠ{Unh_y4bϞ=tL}gōsoP!%޿z EVBjYnxeg eyҠ΁u;G:jha=/?)DDdD84ȎjH`- C Mō!>ɑO)SdP³K o9inx2s/Gq2ˑ&hA B>`E+1":I6R(CJU(DMAtI x}7Zy{VW~A3KYHyA?[^uUrV'nR(--:jYf'Nſ\ԭR{Uwg$pcMW,FJYYY:NP64=ܧR!$[I_|󺺺|'d$tqww$h 71^x7/GmJm‘q]C0պwtqWڎY 70~<@K5sL1&Ƌ\d `ȭ/Vo<,uȰ{Y7WCRΎqUŹ+i 6jV>vǘ4pyQ󴊆Hn)=K`Y2X!/'o}[zۓ tpiAuI?rUB|#x]6Ƨ%&Ua@"Y97]*B{K?]br ۵XDj"%__@gepxC0E ݔ+<尥y#k(,Wq /n@!7o%__޺92E 2&f`@MXUURUջvҩ4)أwCCUE #6@  7 ՗LCqӒLb.ö,X8#Xг#`Mʮ={Kw675v*h>[:Fذ 7&>yIn0M޽S +v!!Q` axCfFǁZ2R:)RUVy ln^[t]Kϭmkh찉!Q J+=%C0AeMͩ Nj@ ,Z޲pwIH /MHu(% ݋V9۪}CݏTw"#uUB䆐:Hv]T/vO}>5e//FKŧ&5GtҒoSNA1cp$*8*B̙3q1Gb Δ5ʭ&<\wߥE6Ŝ4"/ B_'̸f9+XJ/t/Ɏޑw!PTvۗ+wZO7I/p@x[b^x SȠxLh?|iO;p䏃 YwE(IʉySb3l0VvKij  jHA$ bP^((Dt&:EfرBm݆M(g̘Xdm*ѣG\T*gpʔ)!S*DpAgP:%^|MvK~3&z *וWu!|sQi*Ǚq}}W9y4ĔsW ]ܥEm 4UٹC7聽b8 ͍^5Y"0 aw#>1M:W%;-X(hbDEpWC1;O$ZYq2;w_2={C#D$ ^3, J#DpJ8 ^BJtւC-*"+!^>>;YgڴiIO@*hr1TBr)wFgJ!G#޿YMti':OG1d` Ŋv.r!Q7rN[:tOX b Ǽ$FDDX1l'^A+#嘽C J7΢_!Ú u .n(yu˗/G" Z{Ai)0 aSa#F\oܻ҂CeRI"uY*}2/`RK_@⑐g8ݎ ED%s\Ɲ {O?4w0;x1Lv[she4| Rʊ3ZT!-W ՝Rp޲U;~Dg[OV#Xx]'JL8>z`Ѫ3̃Awe[NNK/޽MIܼXpakcD#p8ӷ/N[~~~SSS|y7cffΝҝɂC%Xc;&Ďqhnj-'OGF.0 "ѳO?IH Ag@40l!`~F+| 9GGrn_巾-\1_~2o&dڸ C 'q69o?~<(\[hQ[(?ll 3ndm|7&=zm:㇆-NxzBb7ӵ^;v<z7s؛ TtB4᪷ B wCIX5569M9{~x#u}GeR 7D6 C0qP+GD8#|˹"x<E$ri`K… e僖DNS c꘣D ( cp*rupן]Gcn-!P W6C<GQ8aE? O!;Iìm|~ph"嬗҅I\!!x)1_Ύni(C-u2$ *8l2 -cŦaF'JbFil衇0%(Xh`J|5,V]1ʛ\\^JI韤 K&$/%99@se')>m=1CG[!EHr N}`!?:,TtCuq8KDJ\xOO>$%d~V,B4][U\G>7nCDϷG0af`[VpPD{5k>ibL^jllO~Yid)0"`!']뮻P]%Ǽuر@^/' P#CgJpjaxPBOGi Gp4^<2^@ /3g6#먣z3w# \Stc]anK J w~y`;ǽ{nqt&̐%l l$>}pUGJZPn1FB̮rUDƀLިxNꒇ}HKֆ!`t@_@ N+yI_Nőc{]Ja (e(䈚m2P:NJӑF!u];Ϊ._h:$ΪDOe/H pO)O۩"o􆀟0&٩S1tgCqScCuީ(2J &] /#6I΄^<u 7d 8 eV}bz]H:V;Bpln^[t]Kϭmkh2Q"p"b51bM|%{b C `bwf؁q.7q8ApOL6N7-~Wz%mepcӮk]\JR8ΕruFC\|ʴԱm1K@ ?6+`~' YjJdfy|gRQn&xN" QQ їo0I8p7q_g~ wf~v۳N)Qn,R3> ~- N1U| yk7m47)qC{o؝ȷ|h~|gdI@[\wuOO4vXe)DwFT=7q /,oڧM<!'#ˆoAnéEZx|*d<=>p=L!`?0Ɵ5MϢ 0 DvKl8g͚ơ>.n)FP[[\шΝ;,YQt!.++ .~f&dޜbD$toD_>na]?fnᆁ_%(%gΜ720Ƅ?mͬWO9VGr2m ~GDUW#>>Ƿ׾8so~W37^qL; &EwWG=ƸWD;? ?֓Blnb rg"_rx 믿 Ajݬ(8?R]?!=F7:nXagÖ ":wbc*BOSՁv (W0KvTeR'tD=(G]7"&yoaÆ=^!&Dg-^w8s>c3Yg UÓ u7g GoJ0?PaD*2;N*JEyo Rl䚶)Di?1v"fI,]|tT4u$8d)]E$/iM >us=]o}'>bH]%%%7O.NmٗY;S"y+Rd99ҧGzI6WT2'  a$}Wu2Hn)a^{- R/B>AÝw2կ^2PXo.QX6;pg͂IqnYVvg`LJg~%|r Xٍ%h@14C"}(uPA2L pk HvLBOuyDt}L<gz`Z2@bg= zN>Pik@oV^ۈ p;E_F @@>HnKǒ{v uv a.Aʵm*x `qëJ=h@AҒY:/F#ci箻B=gF tĉ)K=:_ pwvg8 +A_ ]Eӣ%w$nj__I;K*kvs=%oR#/H., 4nR /rWI78"6\,pH"O!G'#&$7ȴͫUw6ׁdx88& 7Ʋ.K.oMP.BmD+;$)W($+4|EA-9܄|(ЩCj#arʝnxB?wS@!~׊`6A1/Z$*ұV""8BiT8^k{a ׿uūvKw9+K-%P▢$#NPBU! Hqd-]2l\Bxdɬ0@b57|h-ҽG#+F:Dc*P6Uqd#'k5 y%tNҦ Q[D_<)zWŨ`Zm,`X(AB ׊ԩSuSH6 (FYiXA`Y)e[}VDOr%!@G/,bsꩧCRB '~-R(7矿bŊv#?Nh+h 7Y z͞=;;4ҭsNEY 73ݶ,\cSLǯ躑ZX8_yN`0&Γln~{)Zaתw\?О],΄O<{gMthnݺbڜaD]ꪫ8V 72^X:굡m!pcǺjó-SK=Ia~hGdx gG0lW_4BJY׎Zٶ+혂#5d v;ܠ8K! c4 %=|FdX[ B-7rw L!0&4&v !E ZE d_fCP0pE4B)2r8 Dm &^1:%J!J8(ڴ%ĥ767q͆O ^T~VM{#jQTP0"UUU^,Ch?0fZa,!`![+[[aBnPv86;ʖ(`H% f!c 6 h %:%b[s %mYZ`~Qznq_>;(6y 8@} q8$j3 C0D R!> }\Ny3Ӕ|K>D[ePGܜ)N! $tMv۳N)Q|8i[x}gyqλCy0$?`!sf$-2%;äOk2 ήws+xxmY*qqN+d!o|sqA¦]9y} ldla7M"EdM1&<͒Osrs]Q2v|ݶꆀoHԲTæ{ܿ>݇yĐvCx'C]TXX:f%]E)뼽{Gu^(*_Wo^[!#nh)k)?1^VT0mOqi$h (d qGؔ47TU1ٸ Hpc!`DQo IL2lQ\n2 l4]46 -Ypd8~SF79V+=0&=ziكmů_P: cbniEj,Oi"`MN 0|}fWrlhBM7wN9\6mBCrrryy9́.E {NZS|I-!C ~nai<km|vKn(*az؂#?XUURUջvҩ4)أwCŽ-chd"! >oW p{}y=Ӊw1Fpk3 4A믟6mu]][>~s{fL?͑w7mPiriX7AhP:!`baXw8񛿼r}o7Օל[;mj20?sa=1 C cj}@pOSדes*}[8_~\&}nNKuu0|\?ńSV{*rỦ&:x-ܰYqʔ)N>Xx14E%8U:_ 8"qcskN/l 2;k&T)V$W>Sg'Z0 C@~n/ys%J돇ܹsgnF"L2'~YwـSx͚5~W^ܠxݺuܙ^{-6/Nh>){V^D q 9Ia<}Ԑ)pœ/~Opv.Ao?V~al CH(Zx>vy\ݺu) co?uY (Qus2D ٚP f…ە;ݍpBsw^-Ѽ꫗-[F[y"9pB:b mS%:&p s饗sW!չ!Hjwkk9@s2ˣթ)1'~~mX@ ;Z,U;03?O?tփшp7ꫯn۶QG6 b|+袋{CRrgy믿^^^2픛7o bhO<ЫW/:{h"#XGp>㪾JHfJ,dCGylCeG}tf|yӳ*M$ןI&?{i.,':c9.RB9Fhx`I%bS({ƌ%U+{Ww>%y;4T^[@c@#`\OyU#~!Xk1&t,]*/B P+0zxMhcLI{#U_۾/ :wVOx۩k/c,BWrǼyZŌs͕_A:"lVUc[SneSvGiVj=!Jː!oV4A.YieCvyM]["2(TJ pA@-j"v;>i0{8IC RRAKSO騷,|I2Qb;0SNeGl2β|*l n 2a.Bs*jWYAɫ>;SLoKdس8,+;u;ϐuTkumgxϤg˵-"rgtYvcH( DUd[oa$D`NIc kӧO\-` ̘d!cN>}@NJinڟL:NeiPP\ | nמ73:^:/޲:"^foJ^idWl_ስ栯/Tr6H{ ^Fb[CßZb3%T"I/i=5JO.AJjBx:&!C^⃌&`VyAd: (\8k^1QM"ߣ&Ɓx0>{ԣhr D#IQ@fDiFTV޽{kUUջ֪W.ٽ[-ڼ~?ai?X wOA BFd:?RpxwkauVcur9yf"YM֕ H3 @ +^p P8d?87@qUr\`AНZ5&؆_9IjW<ԋ* Ai (=8Ua򑊀\ DFLo ɫLžy!te/+P%/M~R TC2d:GJ"8~ٖZBN:ppPv!&MŒG0# (־n#C#à8\WfЊ1#`YJ/d߾}um6B$5NȠ_,|e4)Aw˭9 IڌĪ,>sZat= G~Qjk;xo_4n5;ӧ}]6c n ^HZD ]p*+Z\o;wh_[.j+z궡6Dػ,ź9s,xC9j&uyؘ˹%{NE:kU|RQP59-u#jQS{?fdm "&ph{ڞ?[INUN]nk׭.).op{uOBM۷ uM7ݔf$jSnLa Un݁de& $2aYmQ`Bv{}_YmOwǶ<{wh! cFV-I]qÁ#9i\Yz|xŲkߩR;$HNcSرc~@`ݮ`DfC"FQڐ"2Di ~ֆ$#$fu7ݻw %K` fĉ~:m0ˍYnb|ƘuଐU%%+6ӭKײ斞}ƌh!$rF)>0'sGfh6AG ى?O07{kj[l+-ۣxm/iܑ6>B k!`d-saE[n{]xr'wy)C C0&Cou0 L!p3BXCr ,!`D+,pfڙZk!hLI4&0 !xv0YM>!Ė;0&0Xj6oތ~#JR~iē>e~!54"`M # K4:o2(I$!̓fE O (V!`xeY_t &0,g11q]@sK+1[F,<:85SnRs߽!1 nAP$>쳊4!TUUqU•͕ ;?NP(5. O.T{sB$6 E*5Z@ K`v:i\r 1rs\1fACё{9-tXRچd5c#@&%zo)=.,qgQ# }݇4@%R2H )pB:WH%@fn C!Ή\ˌ(QD 74Č0˛K\WhY2rA6y8l0l-P{UT`G+"Qу݁RJ9餓eye)k!`uz駙Q(8Y Qd+*+),(e7u--Le!Xvz0HNt<ӧS1>p p\=蠃w,Ϙ1cy&|LH$J7M.ߛsﯰ5bisbQqT+rma.BZh$0eUDlMyxv=3EEEuuuy#$@o|Jg;C>.gT`֛@rO`ܧ[+ƣlE tDtkIm3p[w;}M-Kw777vpeEʐU)7x'֛nfQ4[ʞ{eOlpXwbCϖ<2):!`]vٝwi= @r;HT.7(4 %7s4Ư̖= 뛋>XZySWW\&~$CHFp $"`MǪu 7e _xEB^s_xQVQ]ɧ󊇝[P+Poqu_Ed!`Ĉ#qYPv :"$q0oܤ^⧍r^ܝALBn:@I ׉iӦn|9[[gmm|Sg^TqnTxQkV\IC3+LopGgf;؃9& 8KFN6QU*hǙ,emLIgH: 0Xp 2fM8;k,6|R?/8hҁǴ\0ߝ0VY@!h[G}/C̙3V9T7(1 vGqwM Xd !)i2{rGܤs@ṕWI&QD?p!՟mͯ]SOr2x5vv_kf5/;VՄ j ;"c^;.JG߾}D j,=Fpu o٥gasӞʜܼ#<"N_~9s\O;4thėIŋ5Jx`e%Lxu"ن X_琍s`BT khqIByeEŹ7WuTm=Q?McF[d5G,74D-28oxSw6ȣ1t0Fo._=K4d?@V_"wݻ9pFf#D2l 'KN2) $4 }[f{o=f1Ms׿7T2;U;e?Y )7͒%KC[=+k@`%7↸ \L{k=3 D&6: v6 6XZ H&/yYC}Lx@Y`p$ܫ45 )7? B3|QmR; 8.Q(B[9 yDm>LDK y܎? $qV!{L-R' P.%|\r dk=]1_***[abGW; z ˗/%_N)*WYaLmQ͸) W>$:A˄;D9MKbcCfa<|6%^l[@Nf>=ؠ P^b $*2|&{:.'b=묳Q'|\,X1,[Garȧ"LI?uW^@TΠDZaI n'E.d:<ֿ#`²@{rryy9֮E O|\Z`Sn:p3GMa | %t/5_PǞj+0kaFAѿ|nrvܥlʡx!4C@wA[;tz 6kDC8(kP{,VaCxn"zE‰'-GDĉ`}DI :bOUq{2R^ A]o4$ MUQD]LCxn&Ƨ C+Tm P(dT |st%16Ê)7)LNƞ5f_ Z;KGJPY"֔Snb|S-E= `%V lYp-2ƸhobhͦuѦm ?[ȼƺƦϾ" r% QôC8"6eнS_){X7=FZNCĚE;0 C@rRoF0ۊ)7/߄ n6xlٲ߁㩧ҥw}x,Z(ҺcWVQ]ɧ󊇝[P+Poqu__^oݺh'l*˞\v>l06JM \{uݻ8ytɑ;de'pN.~(Bj`&b:2{lM]\GȀkͦ\3f 'l'?蠃3Ee3z؂mSP;h DNTGg[nAN\jl7@87y+H@|ݢO'ZUַ6^R`575tV* 2|p62)gO h * 'vݒ9.9.)(!{}&Zŀ=@wqY<u/Eq*ij]NP#<Ҽbo)YcE2i6n]";)2E+VUq0gݶ=Tߙ4#[qCor;bg₞M{*sr~EEwc[ھ}>}ĿK XRWqqq%K[,0NZ~Ȕ zI%OLLHZ*fS@+xiVImk%KTU\]kQEkzG{6l!Irϓؐ7$ d/Ir/=\E(NPwHyrw'N1F,}3ۦdmN@!K NtѣG39r}A"BlsI'(T]v!/,I@ 6)EhQpHuQ;&c4Πg*bMr!`t)(%Qk{D3'= #T:P"˨NHZInn?+,h(:rOSq Y 0C0RX/ ٍ$$KtT=$?GOh3 (O\"e]E{x^^NkkQcC?/>b4S#!na0#7|>8J0F8i)7Iܪ32 Snb(7!۷-xb }}s_ 7{>R_ L!_L/&:L+*8LpACs5tV0dMOj^7?ʪm㜿gB߬g )6&׏rǻam~_8:;w; ޭ᫫nߣoƕ[4oT#-!a7q,)7YxSe7 X}@YAu4@|G͛G4 6eĉX8=P TqU Vk|ڒW6}}OΏAPׄcJ&Kq9eCAt&h;ȵAPqLbU7A ҂}/Mla#4`9/`N0KϘ1c7o~-[vWzۺuȑ#/X;v쀅?яxs͆@& 6 yyy.޳9蠃`z---E`}}= ػw7xYڪ|q[csSҲ_~a£JK9۳gOaߓ?^Wke"];]里Dq544<_R? \M'ނhB/M"e͚5F - O?4-?C:D=裔Rtx3 F~~/~D;C|w?70xO.]$7GHH$oDHcc#W^KOobIIɫio 7岓rAʷMEE~}?|XDUU"c$"7 MT "7lq HG&'poDqxiB39Q}S7\;WqglԨQ]>+Ņ#UN%eFc+%|^2ܺb՛v:hWpxϦ1#C@w`$SnL'>\l5M--0ح,)}rZnM8ܠ%~<XL; eıSZLI-_~r4<&Ncv.s͏g kl  io<3hU%MP57ɋ/77TbFO5V0ir44C=gq^̘,:PD L-{˫ sWmܝYZߜtor;_KCݻ,Y Cr`H0X{߮ښGuݲuzIDATcG"yIh_-jKf6J .l(v)8?_r%Z؎5/MqbcbNC<̢rcA.ʜ -(,]:7'\WWiQCޞlؑrxI\L! [*A``$S&ǝaȈCF=rXԂvEߒS/:w\/KfGP)b3uhW>8: !txb8,|nѺcIe$c(N$&o@p;#9_Bh^qƱpG_~崊E(RرcFׁQf n44Hd&x-K3t 5T/]ۑ?[*Vui{.^頃K[./"dL;b -<^z) 01aԤ9{O1$Ԩſ/EO;BxWf8yXJo޸}_ _ZFf tˊ 'Y]@&j`'`QFq469DxEOPz F;;<7"]bC_'?jb4*#ᐾ R8Q.QD9n12P*H L֢‚/ OYZvcm^V8`OBHY>mJѓsȿNӠDZjdQf^@yh]qWu:07(C~Sl uL*3gZɡ򠻐B ˗/'('" q@Yאb̻ロ+DS){IЁ&41#SΟp&c??_'΂$ yLS \T?, ghÃG+h!yTFV8HtBG*,^ګ-lؼ@kעƆ'^|>I% ڢPTh?A+8aҳC#SloާOJa ;|K3ߠMt~DX",=,Wh$~1+rLI-CkP%'o%;M|tqMv3{{.6D-A.G9-@8{T_oQ7)7F%V~LZoM[hM8 ˦l`R@19VּT!`{nR  Iͫs?^Y׺zb!zb `M,Y@S,a>.?ta,\l;Ϛ jgU)P4E4q}މ+b0g ;0Ur]wADîƠ"'=F*v[-_>7t@@LoY[p/f$oh$y6P1F◮nZ(PQ^^o*|exACK/Aywr72={w0r0ȻHX^^VZOƍ!ҥ'|tFah̙3᪁{D"jX . hd+V=x_4D5!>AR@p%.%U܉+B dh񟮭zoU=^^1^s/(wWcǎ#ͬytA9"ohIEI¾}H *iWPSKpK*6FYϻl20M>P,^! ^|)2˘%.Id$]Õ¸ 2S(ĺb'!17K$WѳI2!s2\H&eVuKjD].1 I(pIA5_>7t@gk_ⓜuYQds ZWU4~e`@M:mߖ-[)1P060&, o"qۅbA|'i{=D9΅I "o<PiMwᓤ(Ē2xC21B "I؍meq[B50LD񘼱Tox4~8(O?tP'x0P:BQ-GD%s,o'R7xwϕɉ2t~|0W~<Dn9C8(F,ɓ59!3HtEܥ B)K0 :Kt [ WW8 +#uܩev! T}mS֛+x0xv 6"P\Pz*et%SzI&1w lȤ,\p3` D9qU\]kQEkzG{6?0(-d('wTfvm_郏m5ࠓ?H|u]YRʔo4̓>x7.י-;aY6jiP5tV'rѹfsknh6cMu7U!b3oe9Y #`Mw妶_¹sc&! ؆$lU!bY$v# @MHC0"E#Ee.d@z"O^r .oz mVSn≦2 C F _'E出^x{R |TԜhim΁_R_a|1bkSnN};1W>q_Lܠv,Y-BeC elgȝw}k|Yf_ڷ7ռ[vVe3Q>B`ԨQf[bMI[LI[҆3ˌx믿>ikN{emKZT~ WDqŽޫ[Z[mݶ}-̫mklT,!48iP[EICAmGM{֩SKwn&Q}:ba2'_w$ S.$%*2k;3:IJ ^R_rU\UeOV}wV}`D b ϓM֨U|c4X4B,Gp.ħ=a4lH`{|z It.N3wޞrM8?8 Ek„ ˿x@ꔊppi֭Rp%3ʿt k\uјŒh\:p_gso~Uɀl,+y-(޷/SYI':76mzƔ@'R]::)P\/*hψ:ܤ@?`$nEL6o%>R#\f SL qȞ^QQ߿FYA$[5xᄫ19*U3?x?nA7:Fc9T~ș _O<;|p.8zhzO+T UGDUOx(I\6^5 ^Tqn\;1#CGz6QaMphN⨤$^ VCC u86<LI=Ϝ&7U')=ƴKL=pIhbPf5> aO;{#Fpa;aDy1];,b!mn'{<ȴq+z.)6+MUuUNkihT sU Ł Q˖-_:.P󒍃--xLs 8;~RY@]]qP=C Bz6=ݺu/&qNxO8q"ސh>4R(>b rrui쭹[גTI~뭷~_0sXaj{rAyyS{a$qB5)A\kqAƚJGֿkhXX[tiҖRu}ٹs6)7G1#bbh ,G6',o#zrD{<Îu'dRɾՇ|SX3$T1dN/urlH1j ; Cmy| CjPrވfd}dy2Sn2>M/,R*khJIg[:t.M .'"F֗[j'Sn 2t#% Aۈ=uUǒD2NXņ(&Q1B۪ :HYG2za]UŁwl\b@`kY%rX|H%ʸ"]H~4 E$7)Ή7B~CZl:a߫_Gи%kfpPdFWU4Kz(CbūJ ,G ,끑fZCaT< =%LtL[i 5, v0 w0ÜHhkr _EwJ7%*lWuCE>crɠV x, )IV!,t-I&opj+]Vr3Dፆ85 8''hZϋG+IVC yr:TbMA2 \xE:3 b/gx"D$\IH%!\Uq(KeP ;d(NrTx8קqxnbZL/SNʲC,V;,5wIe>Ȳ|8{T% @z!`M/v۰&.CmPM->D!xYg~#|T@6|N(|rI*tX֭[9WL/#(.E$"j=ށfq溑% ;'kh,L &Sn͊d|D"m&~TÁ.f 5᫃X4xhݑz FGhUO)E:dv#TJ4.8>Qx g[,,5=j`[O)@ ʌމZC Z\`rׯZ++!!B;ڬFsIB$md|K WܹZ_A<|.Q~oUf#W]̼m߾]-A%\]H"3=zp)0 s27\<(s U)Yt(E $bW̜Yg4>y`0Wp{B 3c+&.;$Aϯk9wj-OwR+N9/Wû+lB|D"D$tEVD8a̞=[ Th]01! "GW"E(.Ǡ)Ha$~?@Be< #WWظzO.]Js[z)3kR"a2 "`Mgو;X/ɞfkSn<\ uǖAuߑrr]CA]gN9'~MBe$lU=0]\N*É⦆'~Hgj *vה-ӿ6X@{̟?((:~>Nqqs{S65|)7> "/ʹ~.cW-ͷn<.` _m: "OH{\,f 4kmlll,uq0K~%:"AU3.\o~/ֲ#`I*L ܤw5|߰yo^JhBI|7&s6f[+Igo°s& ]6yɐ!C)| /9 O( B_8dSn|xSI.ֻ@HKmbweӧ/{Eo7.owC?mCp=j*+õ$~8(555Ex]emR*;Q&f# ;IQUQLee7Tq0gPz )(7o]q5c5V<]x|OX;_54Li p9H'm^AzRŮM>A+6xa=jk*y[Qic2ywҤIo:T.e3#_2?~42ѵd|kQ`8urf#p>XtUwpt赴pV=JYSn|i Qoe.Z(a|>eʖmCvœ^6rr O^юmY0hW4"95CJ 8Q1_9gֈlƥ"Kt_?F硇BQ@xYfM~I!Yx13EEEl|->X5}t4'x"q;!YNOGpϴW38Mr0&[ A].$@MH2*f Kae*dM~e!Y;K/54C4RnbvYcrrsZ6p Uybke 4Eܤ˄fjIrS[[{gͳ> c SnR|zC0[b*Q2v>{ /` 7=Q ܰCK\|&ë;n5rホ`M0 C- { Z8]2v>{ 3`p2h0xaV93 jvZkRyKXYTn{xK͟?_1Pu7J 'JE]WWظzO.]Js[z)3r?@!`Mqo~En99@CkrXWsWiέpC{ZM LP(79sf>}"VpK*k/|gҿ$:VHklMZ߾o<1/AOlTL\qB373(Ě+@ 2K;kվ6?PT4ҺmGwSrEulːL:uQ;}t ƕ_0旿+=OiIe#d"`{RJ|N"l$n>x:,ET6 6l֬Y hS"&{-JW4N,ƶ~LpBdu{dp D9Q֊(W{/r~5hu5u9F@~O?d@YkqaYǖ;r.],7"OdĬ:C 0M "eu')%:"(7+r%"Q~B8DdG"$@ee.IPP8I'H&?!3D5qaATxQE+.A^)5-Tjd&$e# 0& nrt ) ~usUtn6t%5#[΋b,$Q[9 ʡ[ 28gos_6m nh^iѫ9Muy&ZatjT'a9i#U$uDQ$,ۑuq_]A¥9PgfE"I߶mBij @!E~B{NV$nRwހ+ sԆ[<,M5{~_t-K%)Oe)k9j?OQna7HJT^79a^M} "`k;@]A_R. *D 'd&]EI9FN Z9%yU^tzߢqpAA^^ 7K,K4~d\~=bG`ݺuX {{7,2.DG&)A9١mc!B((=G4; Aٌi֑DNh-Mݱۗ=|konoxgۚJbyvWjj믿ӟ4n57t}ݮm L,hbn&MN4Du RsI'!^b6  `{nRU!|gؘ wi+<&Nܬ%@Z#`}ixl^R>»uD=+N^甠\)< _0kn~',Y:C 0&#&@9 @pmdxnSqlRTCj4eʔ6LR~lj뮦k+:`WMiven?uaΜ9[:+[=+9%T믿~v߿?d?'>|8) /_VNB946(`߼y3&MvI2YX{8CJٳ&6%U Uu$>? $;C kxZG̩׵GA@@ހaEe=41Ne{i C0ˍ=IE@> R 8* z +ڏ؄߃b! Fϐ!Մ o8B\q6N"mDCÙٰtw9Wm\Bz8\N/`[e!`d)dOUJ!aϠO @ 6`DFy⸼R#/^o-GPDL:~h!,EŇ]-5PzVE9Gwpghv RVUlIGUA`jb9;-OwlYsXiKn8"at.>`uW,7Vھ}AdB4tN@<0&h,Dvp}sMsSS᥹kZ r[w[Q:[ر# JI\7jԨJYaAUbl _|EYqC :L7+i,qꪫ0_ZrS\\|M7{QHT!m0|͉ urqbwޙ&XY۟',8]c|h1q.|6OIa/Æs' ~?xȑ5qsevZu N8ڂ;w$06/ؤC>ii^MR)W_ݣG sBx.+bѮ/«UYYqˍHsew0R8'lJ}b7w߅&_|q߾}0RgP$0O>RYt HE`Kd@ Uvz DjeW3W@)~)}SM /#z 9dL\RAR&iy23\bc@iٳ#Sr0 eL{IO8:G}%t=Q T@)فW R*BI㭺IS!VLWٽ9 k,eπ`Vd\0P &02Ch" d(^SO=% ,CP3ɘ1cАTvٔu/rgVhUFK_?Oy3L+Pm3{`@W|Ay88sK?~<[#^-,Gy:\/njiݶktɩ]+? m#}6h)"ըQh?q wy0嗜Y |"ʿ2ի"a#9߉^x<g}6R(s _rR/,,+BF'l>쥗^J՜ N 'L$l*f.0 E#aӟBdѧz*QS&(dHq{nhh.WBIC?%9r$_>IQ\"2P)W_)v% >RU@('4q&'ƯO? e_~ϛ7'V" Urzu8JUr!Ԩlذa!.Hdo:蠃:s?(OD*:$ x%T tG(^F@Kk`O,ާKX0MC IVt4 NŗV Ŀ$ƒL}{Xw>>!: _aÆaW%ιDq~# bFWJ%&WCC*axpS gYO)Gᆎ1tדΝi#K 4N hWpr5FF82Y4ĠRSSCYD!G-D>rrٱ:#(?uUF#3+:u-[ ݎTk֭CQ/Pt]d|sSkog&:\޺jZ[Z[[Z"Ď)7ch !dTw03t ^k<*k2I!o5UTT%@7 lLH݁%Zp!߰ݘxׄ 3`ATX5$rCkFaEc?~R3^{HSu5kt 3J md<-l) (q2I"=ߠ7^#,.DUlcGj$ wPk í.9Muyx?)&mlC= i6qDZ̧yiӦ1% s}mAs]sl՛*ed {!'%zmCsB7b-,D֣nS A-XMôPܳgO4H8 ʿ$ 7()ŌA E{QttP)%Z|e#'OP1p@B|%RM{T5b%zt˖-jK}EA ]v I!@+%GKke 溑% ;'kh,0 C rNǛ98*vDxDwr\SO=\UY»L r*;'pBv'SRQcL0nZθ `M\`4!C#OMMɓQh4i܎4{֬Yu릫t#~^sżҚ EGi*djC Y0ăאV޸yV~RSO<[(EF"#5 Zl2&0˞ zL)˗Gp3x &M={rww I߾})hːG dsrZ]yP ϔu0!|XVU01bȔK:-a"%ENA!DT)N:Yƨ 'w^_=q};~yҘx!`d{j[n++ۣC{gFҨfIeM4vK/F>uTӮ{f-3M(=^WWGS+uz@,7@r޽u]/_'!A}…A!Șr0&iP[Ei#>.餽IÈFc5?|뭷ۂN4@Q)7<7V&xMтyG%~0Gſ ̛Hၱ>m1mWfJ㽐ӈMIӧݚp֭[,gʔ).L_wyɧ Gij$~ [V!0l C (~(n81˼lDɦd a݊(EL$ 0K^:/%񨣎?5 0K.7'_y-1y:33_M tT~ZP6+.-%tɦt6Y";8PMIEN87) lᩧёlhEHLЏ>"?񏕁_W2l!tyȉT4Ӏlقo~-Rpx$.Cczh!TWW_U-͝$8sH׌e8֕fbKݿBZ+ǥ{JbwRBlM4:XT3I.];Rzi&B5+:N^';@)m*L͠*TV¥rq >I*lUl4;ůV*5@`NF!˼yH 9U0]ve3H2FB h$ tbNG)ls4SN9UQ!{!bv@AIfH62 kccJMɐ?]qǢcA%et_rSl֬YJ// E0!𾡚0R(aBN1=zį)79<6sZz?x ~#,,i].)P.ϧ!hmPRLؼcWˉZ|A1)e2dKGͺ+ܿNr\'G'HχO5)0Q#K!T gqw!mRLr|ECO0CG0ҧOyŲG,4!w<$yNJˌz$If_ #lKJdSnby!1>}CqD8Fɔ`K}!Sn3`&Ԕ䵔c RBlʍ o_ a'fþ"&F[EݔHY,Wnn+Vr->-4г ?.(ϴW$nܳ=7*+5Jkl @!҂Zqo[ΜiΙ6utlx$Lɼz;sX[ C uΕ|n[JCtQf]Nڣrj]l#N 2wHНVG,U6iS]wC=$S?sNxǰ𾹹B(w9ኄ@rxuJqW! # 1c<W :CBA DvGJ89@0JR, @H_gƌAd82&g*2j Oi0>ORfNV[į=0ZZ /9t\yxDp",J2Z J TGb?FWkUP5xbt ِٱcn٨Ҫ*N(9{(N3ō8O3Nj-b%͛7[BE FtF!ft,!&v5&^z-ϼҗBx$3D9r8#nf+ GF¿^ɨ,H&=30 oTͬEf3Dtt Fd A9cRcM]hD ]AowYB ٓe C 001͏V K[R1mJKcx4υ< ^æt~yͰv 5YaTeE'%^)hrUeYU̪.E*pXo*BW1Ab1 b(+e4冈 W+`v"e՛v:hWpxϦ1#qزTHK+xH,-Ke)&~Yp}Xafh1Lވ0cݒV1&V|"=Eqc(4&&G)7Rnud 1˖d v`938< dΟp&c??_'.(t+&!`D@]]]EmY0oҖ]/~ckO![oؼtr `-6-7hėb݉8tYn:2"}Vqq1<]/bXyC 6/_~gr)7y[S#vsPJeÓӧÊ,!`d4C#=q,Х))7t+<#֣ +pAJ#z"i675ZrZs*.b9Y C aܰωFħ'0+.T*~x Ӕؔ=&@fÁWgƝIŔE",8d`[}t2@%5p¿ +dF0?? @C0@Hq72@A+9HLkʼn# 'pJvmC!NTĥ>/N͛hsnV7pO[L %^~@!$PcAfj2qDN`0`,dZ_3 Z, ѣG߄.HxL!5eʔ)7|3 [A]agPeľ=~VqB6Z2Aj%2`>묳Pwʒ1211zMSjcSnExX/O>$KN~jAES(":cErryy9֮E O|{b@xHC:BǐaK]t?N_N*481%cPbL9prId],jCY7.D)ۛet~q3!‹0A W8',]sss/_p#bbU,QabA_KINSjcSnZMwsTkeJv =K {6LI lʍfY߸x 0[Rr᝵ ʄOzu]w#)2O j)7/ʔ^.( }=d8!an|3-~lM GCI-tőaݏX[ C|0a$y|gδ{L:{T~[:kjs?k6mM:+at0,XXnNIy02s)7~;ֶ! +dy%SSAGxb0V!`"5ť]i/{MC ,GN>]XdJU-"rCq>"%C HB/9l*ѱז4ZSnb$d _8 q N?9X4 S% oѢE4e(9_>֥tF(&D1Ӭ\s%2^/3+ ~LC&K9~ꨮBP]a ;ikk™2:ʆ.)6jZuu u9@$z5ᱏյ3.|uE"o@"vGwTŹaWfVkO$ra[ bq0@iܨB):/bH)Rd֒E\f(fBBbcxU<~]x4*R xu6-LܬqyJᄜ mi)|(Qj-Yrtg)l/Vc9ЂA_А*q6HWVLISHtگ]e%Dx1Q)AmU;`zp^̃t h#&SP0;\N6nM*(W7nߗU}nd`M_;_&7(,Y2c 1'r 3f|M7:) kI&7W_ݗXVVƝ%̿O!X.! ȑ#ot,]U*)۷o2dRȁ ) KLY4RiZ5'эA_3&;;p:¥?=ċ>cO_=aX#i:e6cg}IэX.?:1KL YEv.u5Aa#)F]lqOS冗»T< ٸqctӢLu-Z io<3hU%MKmY*.06^xOF( Vy\.]:m*@ qq@M}M#ab:%2/"{$gΜ|2F>Qg(R~.Jm Km!/**ңN I$CbHDu&]ДoAff`٘e6ƃ/ME$0U糯(8G$llji*ȳVqjm^h]t2Yjn,)oI `=:?3D1aA3531xlej糼\O ޡSw23:9~骈tA@UX6'4GvASn9%UR eSЪΛC PA$`]T Qq &Ze!`Q@a7CH`ȴ%0d 8 9y)r*m& \rlGt"k* TMtɏp r0m%aDB*h.:Jf(y P}oý֗\j/zCH`Ƀ !j`L6p=r-*FlQ<\{8P-@"  |:t:;wU^x[C ^/A2s rF*pz4aM0y븨^EV,7,5E z Oy‘ۤ0 4^K\?ڻ7h0-'pBc%0C11&I>ãsWY"P aQpPOz8{݄&bW-#ZwFZH Hoٲ_:xMc *x%P"pbA@ y(p/qʚ}-,8_&8{T&^۲TZqC0 C Go{HL`)pQpnT*C0 VגkSnb0$`ÈFx7tNaF]'/Áy(Bx ^dB?Kd5 C@.`ye9֌U7\P;skʍnG2^c/!2@6eMlH!aÔ&2X8DO#?819Fc\6jǶe儇9U=7p"I0 C vܐ&a3'\8 ~Bp#BZU/맟~ &p/l-'HPȏhtNuxC<Ԩ,jM7+JRN\xaqr?3QNe!`@0e>'rZ9&;*nM\`L'!h lAj桤e 9e2`nq$ŰUrL[t/A(B6eVNÈŽ! "{^'1W7 Tؓ负tjT졇¬lQ]l{c)g 0ufn@Ʌゐl^(;{`Axg~sO=2WaPY ~ h :ɓ'{gF5K>2T/6Vӏt `g+>yV۶yc[=;s41#z$pt .wP;n/l69!`aJj>2i+Ԕ2k 粻(S${EAy*?B4*E%UM.I;c!ʖ Qs1@|}ycqB{sA]crrsZ6p Uy6Xh q|l8Lr#SN|š\Df#1LQAȃ$ ,.cp#D%\8.m6M\`!̈́ntԇ5~7[.x(jӹ`|,n Y8'2`k.l@$N,xEӛmOm-uy}{4WUuh(D%֧1<2ɡ9#=Ci:,b^f ;`}"r31b:'腘.  ^cY@}}zl]/l ؼy3.'NdڐK <ap۽{y睇5 ~0r;i&o)Zb* WYo6熍ÇSgu2f\7nIIIW_aJ뢾`EZUP JXA ExfZ)Q;5֮@6"/zx"Ty`0\kcW~0'{W_>$>aF$~cΝor"?Rz-7,x?zxù+,h(:rOSq qv!Q1;6 E~Y\'_veAo f F ZM7{,+`$',zuuug}e0s9(7p~k!Xq':Q8'~usAb;nA>8gΜZV00 ּ O`׻K5?-G3O5{se뮃.ΫmhxCMo($TWļfo{8>`^Q,Z&D0OlŲ~xBUWe9~ҤIr(wܜ@sł^]_9CF 흠G!֔(@K"CGpRlx}=dq,8X> , 4D0&^h1h$MAa4d}lUFV^:Rnm3# K|~ϿiQd}w1#'\L_ g&IsSƫV3gڽsM=m*-5nC:sLx!h%{ؖSAٕaf1x+%-6r:`s8V\p*rӽ;s d1*!6}pxNc#-6rg!`U8U@.중 ml#os8x8%Ey%y_ڼ_DZ2&6!`!n]t(ϟp&c??_cO=ܤ#i5 C0bC{ ȈǯM0&J!`i6ܰDmɦt0 C0 ;Rh!`7pGZ GѯEL;&0 CD#`8r`Cܝ/^N%"g3GSsN%9rA/hqk/rےMS GH7ST0TEn@'6mc̼y>b(lڴq 5 7zKsȒG~54v4jM477MA hm:lŁMW8PttI]Nַxž"޲$_3eRP?4C'8@(&Dk!%nݺ$BB '^drwHM~dG}ꩧ$,35eʔ &`P^.sa(u}Q4"dbD$)C.UAk7ӧ1 CٳGTV2ʼn ^ϝ<۶m#ѥ 1&# =$L^hi_%[z·4R*':W_~(@(.8zh/ɦ'C0Q?#M*9F''-iA(aM!jH #*prwc_Vb;r /T)p%HQwyNSWWPJ&E8_|XX C M@9#fqN˜q39{L`6#fА0Ip8M}|x0*Ȩzw@uCH]}YnG30rȥKla6gΜL $o&v MO@a+NXr͆ |bk!`CO>>lLhʍIqC l))r3)\dIzn CH@^;MhLG^rvK`/O>: DS5Ur(ᦣVtԩЖJJy@t;3r8CќPP\0Ϊ.dezur@ oK&.3bQM!p}E.*{j[n++ۣC{G.!q9MIi# ?*9 uV\)ag2 #,HK64a%we2QtA )%btUĉ2p#A'j箔U;u?RDcmU "9شPX-J/R~JW;e6 $ h8yEu, 6G[ꔨ3>/zߕЧTœT*lY*[! IzQ3Yb Rc4 FAX84yd| PP^.itgs8w]*Z;޳ï, SܖmB%gTZp'.ܔ14 i@&iseӇX~כhi1r AMID`<7[oZNnN~A*9oBcڲTi- h!OC&k^7pDT͕~%w~'Pj dهcj)<)ܩt,7Bxg-'#J'_ 1N"d ;Q(vZO:uB8aB8y㻮㍡mjjQT,ů+==IUYy YndA|:!];d՛}8f\5U \5r9;ܬ~~创5wf?2ˍBۀ{ygZf_ڇ*rCNv/;mI׿*^%ZՠwS}AA&Ԇfn`SAM7``c'p n*:ץϜ񽉦ϴ \P%,<ΙxY'/9,ʢx k!`)B=m:`2V0tQl3)iMX?UjO%YX6YMwxzs+į2sw2ā!,Λƿ`&u~괵0 "  e( @`j'L80A'@!?3A?s f؞ivKWM7ݔ-e+mMo 3~pIJLgN;T,73EH֔aX;v,G0k!`d:z/+2>B )u7,hM|L?iN/^ Kfwņ!t}Μ9l|߉eN Ք ͻg㿟 u7 FbIې2 CJoaD s@_H6~UХ0o{h=i!`@#`MTOrSc9kb0i?_RDT$ltοiѾ~Km8m -4 pPɸ7蒆M -'|6e"O%7X+yLԲeքvAX(_t*e0|8^_J1}r"&NcƌQ\[4Gr PdFsUh&w_Dλ(I,O_Z!ェ.-% cWg;Z*luAy9~_x؍b+k%_o 믿y:s4aF$sQaVA!`HyHA_! ecNr)VDsN)U*1pTM\C9{R0C,C`$)8 [ou-@xc>ᱠmM,5&l*vĉr+ÊRgYh-K%, &Xw?O>өW;؁X=QH}&єLC2)b F[0 " ^7XXcyV֟hg^Lɼ{j=2 C ʲCr0&x[m!`!`LI0&A`gU W.XoኝgXu3T!`qAhB⌀|8;\"..z"?KUoaD@Qq_mܻn{ַl`b"!{zn=~D஻YvtR^i?dHRe~-IG95e+(]zdy.o+*(sԜhimΩ\лps4Ώwd 6#({'c`^D|{Los1k+ـ@ޝwޙ >J~FM|%N8~ MV@#GBTSPPtc9n?tK/2dޤdŋ 5R%EoNR.\~zj!Kg8&_&?0q$|PvI]B ˹dɒ?Do:"v}Uh10/+.(W^^ L:wdƌ<"vz]^^o[K8^s9yݻE^Yw ƍҡtO[WW+ /Orx89S}QE>3O裏S!&< 'K Ǧ_ 2(xOէgoᵆOdBy ^p- a @-'T%|ۣG(|DB\o:rn:ŴHKa5e]!rF w-a2y5 TȱyxLJuR$;YUƏ֋%UQxs)j+33ĉ8MtQCcBorq\(W{Kk5hiY9qXCY)7YrӬgusAsx;ƈI)rH=*2( B\IS3b80T="XzdfԆp1A]3rryy9֮E O|SU\'LAHAQ т2@PMPYf}%IM:D6([VɆKtW)22ʕ+yeF_I#N0*%PKtʣKj"5͸(uF{?\*0&[alswY&fvxNΘP?TQ kz%0c'%*NfH5\3E'Je J ;rUP{F }ѡyG◧p`z! DbŹj_$72,*[C2p$b-]Ɂt̙3P[̛8D/#o ~E~LTagn2EA384Y\krpB*F+!*)3$aq8uaa;㙪tcfXG,74!0h":!.QVr8j!Ӟطo1x",-$q6qDXZ>\-0O4^` '^2bO3;ElEEqN< Ȋ Mš + +l"bqHR(xnRUlPGLɮ>f4w\feOe.㹉#ܰ~DHvEımU\lr*ꅬ:HH!GD{"-9Z F8*i\ PڔeV'S ֔U~vڡIԂdĪ:~ejk)MI&V!2[DNӲxfJΛ@)7}Jq1Wr|F|<+6FicNlkYߖ|wmm#y)sD.h)cqD 8.Vh.Ѥx'^|{wr C6=~RR%ـT ¯8AeaCRՂsQf\<87]pb^EёLek)~иZqC ׯ/8]q"T4&U['O=5\V::Ǐx] Kle}>kpV5d,D NiȎ\M,OoQ*ɻk) FVHFO `Ml0&qؚ`2b>a? P%%Gf.d@1 DQPPnx9 +4@,CΡ){y"/>g{2QWlr)7$G }ݬ xSpS~?+*gQRPG)4eVLTDmfϞ 9U*}*i v-jl~糱XdZYC @ hJ̜:ď)ZaV}n8T[RY 2'я䛷'FHVɼQ4Moi-aT,xEvL Ā9UpRo"Fup9pn6yUYeYUfe|jLI`=&ܹI3 'S3H&!) G,aeܤʖF3QTөRt8iPr>ri w7Vf  C/QL+@AAkAcGCW ,%{hDaG\di"@ _o͏Sn"2%t񭈺9e zqJ&V! (ΩЛ*pպycEN:¯]Ig^Ĩ&ÏE 6!IP- :V24KnG `RsݰqkAQa wsغ?DL`qm qrm}cO#cKHeyC,7lƯj7f@1KQn[o[nI~8kE"`M紁Ýp- 8yqB0͌# phW3{%|UӢ}U9~w?qʇ[|oL!`t/.qYgE:0XC|Ϥ8b]i]Bo\Udב"W:96m',3jsVٳ*28!鮈N~7:c̓go[(}i*N2NloKKIRh|8WnoLk {+յuk]צ] XQ6q[o3׬YClY*ȟRq젉2Yn]K{҃ j Ee4! @Qd)K J^3f̐g# oKA$ d]C4y ݋$!&r, '޸āeP/CN4$ĪUj?t*hW?8ho@׼~Mvۦ>&0 F\h}Ny'>l_W\z{O_ 7͘o*6՚LrGT6M4HnI[G`eH{W Yu!qP`kƆ>_RPRʬ&9Q뒄x;GM@v#PWW^mY0oҖ]^Sni> 11("\-{{I0tE9,A!6i bmjٻ%m)1mvk 7-cOP]lm9p@M)@B*h\!NB% K(F;Evl-\snv5Ǫ#r:%o̢^{-H2ZW,hXtGH&xi[l ,\$4&4B1"? \Bs9۫APA")[Ptiv웓 H0a0[}/<W/'{Ohf9XKW*rNղ1 Ў}Xq2dh6leC;'9Ӑւ‚/O)d -<|QPq0yEg^҅:[!<<^OI2a|0s{="i@PE$B@Qq_mܻn{ַlژgXt`ʍVBU8AIPu;ܸQxkIK2(mݶ}-̫mkl"0ba)᪊CqFy~0AСRȩZC|'')%\Rdun,(4|Kȃ(DҎ}|v &3-%,mK'{ W^y)S m'ja%RjT ^r"^q|QSpCfV*+!ʯN.\UR$Vܚ]R *3 |FjcL wx]ғO>zi5\2g{TP4Te˞ErW.- rQ]c 0̞=U[~ˁיlguQɣXPYۢ6-^"TK>,L(1&L`e q/ CBx`bb꣬T7E rJ,!!׍I/_NEЁ)."G u6uxQq -b[͉.V0z+6/5@p B> R(ĥ0O;Wzn뿨 %`@d@w#rJtFs6>D[1L<W-A)'t9ׁHЧ_oYR8l4-Rѻ5_8lB8)1:1 Bx Ns *EڜYe"ܾ}sCr"DNH91V~jxuU8WP>|S5Oc/S SKJבWM`<* h\b\bUm5wgT;d#eĉ0HԳpU_!`ʍnfV;#{i@;ҽێң/%=֬YZgaeNW[ Fs(O3=^;ҍjC8yV۶yc[=;s41#zm|$l6垦Tnn^ȝZd v>}˲[o1>!=*)_qWUn]6SV7f-LKDޗH[LP:mS'//-w/oZ޳$+ ?ch`D1c믿vZQ٭ ,_E0-Մ_m!'2+ HF; k*L :Әe☿8w]*Z;޳ïhT$&~Tޥ^f]>Z)DTe3f1*64TW~렾]wF &D>Ly{ڜ~/|>rɃrN!;!GR~C$¿X8㋏gڼzoMWՕcUb]_=~Ooقω-\ mFW^ -fk60jg9]\٤ݍ"`ʍ=E.,78 hYYYn^|"==6/H%HCHLIdI9#llc}ݳd[OYT4PP`Rڤe DaۓI)g۝)7lq W t`jًʏG=$1 ? fQ^|ڃo}pT ]FR<d XP_GfEU:N&'R BT!}ŠgNMAQ4 ^6h$8 (q5Z ]&Pʥ8ᆃ6@!!mxq9liP0 Y6r/~9HאUUU ,\,3.rb  V?aABi9lJ#̙3<SK Y@,PjڧaiI_?)[ /*b헕7 CHܤ8Չ.8OB5˃v멤%'qǗ[r J(|e㋗&N=G1 Î =wςsn ń!`d:ܤƬ"N J?Ѓ:@~v˕+atId# &6^~~gO׭[/J? @!},j-\snvCz=-=vV2^TWX5//qqcr<7ȼ'"Cenk"hcvL:܋ZK{3BUŹ6ini,|s~zs.a2Sn2fBl&N DR'rUnF`h9a0G Pn*Eq XX uKRdrPhʝ|ElPAM7$!9df!t A4yK+ rn 4W,e+G4~Ȩ;q-kv#`Rt!ɶFh68Z[I!f̘:R` 7=](VD D~Wn'S ^urx[Z-o-u#K;'kh,LC)CAEŝxȀ7|sXYC7b}+%* D[R(RX„⠨OA(.t,^ 1kWZ=MŁ@زTXYNC زT|Qe)`YG' ]P)pl r, DDw!T'Dfr bq$3H$'WUĠZ HYw"U\]kQEkzG{6C L%c$Sn⋵)73 >^]URb㮪=ݺt-+mn٧nHSnTaMHF!k]c(srsZ6p UyH1&2˕H>|ɇz(&TZߡg~oI`ϴ狀pQ ?c۞ UV* lE/"Q {ͨo ʽWm}{ͦ .Nז sРAAiowLwδM嗿6PfX ;+ksa!eGqxC]=dTA "m[QrJrMxr jFPf@KNksNޅhqӲ"pqlӧOE,!r1=zA+o+GL9wѓYf9> 4-Z/Qh3y@~UUUQ7ԂR\I˗/W.o Ņ8QA~SGMټy3WlA̱SLT-6&J]w%dw o1yձ"`MZP4(W& 2DܪEBW nA-L&BOpa65(EeE;͟2KDDNu'hZϋgc?';~0iE,7פmY0oҖ5,X!_"1b5?YX&YIPPb~oi6+U8R$_o)~B͢ޝ|ФfIf@=Z: //-RZnCUp$J`"Zn2vZ7 0Md8YH#j 4=MT`[Bբl%: Lg/vU(ә}kjTnY.1#`MoUo@؀N^X-Rm*_-[DQ#) N lDs`"f)P]l3mݶ}-̫moxQ#낦X C ;ѣ|QkD+#+oj|(+Xi!f8-!ā֥RqW6(!/X4iEJڦVwlӰU_}ZySWWw/)찠eHGLIǻfm6 LC jwvbA omҟuY\r 'l9`ɓ#4e!A{O)ދVk0a&)-Uv<.cы.'qWA\Q(BONc(+OoH6'0am>Wznw;`SnfYS C c@YfM]߷Lș>xp"mgR8"ELG-;h9lUq)$cmF!K9mLNɕm/4 [8=%5WC<{mk |0zQƹkij谠eHGLIǻfm6 LCm;3:8`8#)c ¨>qǢB;^z?ǂ΁%36N9)y Ux1A6.S|-ҕBjO~ğlmic{V0ߝ0 ^PeH <-n52uyܹ [.^{`Vd\L(pOoSwW_}. /EQW"b#C:+'//-w/oZ޳{|{m|)7> CkL^c=۷ u]׽{g.ٵWqscMeNN/**#&WزnG7>xgzW^y0@YYՂ [bY3VpASQj(..Ijb\ʀsDS6G5bTjwL;+Q]5o1#d:t"e{w4hhhӧχ~3@ eQBi *0mp(B -[(*_㫍{m^_M]N[N">S$؀;~h[|4 >C_zQ(?buǁ(^SO=H ; !E6- IHg 4Ibw^"% {"0,46ė~Ɖ++Xȯ.S8!H3GSsN%9rAmy~иHzjy C0:D! O>j ^q@M%z > PIxTݗWVⵋPÏcܸq/))꫙uxp%Иk-FKYx16#lfA|4t,D )1%,ӦMk‡񞹲-fR溑% ]54tM`D׃̫^cW];afX.e"%r͎d 24Qi})7>Ai<Z] j4 s9'BTwxnm'tźd:B^<9{q"X/{ȕ*C6v&pbzsω^֕U߉hZϋkdI'(&)4UQ)QZxșoB#yY f?Z28ePN BfRΞJqV)9)C ~]Kd0&''Y}0Hc/cG$3/# )bShrMćvGyUW]T$MtTAFaBε=W3Q\K\ҁ8!]W‚/ OYZvcm^VخN;Hly XM_P*FG MF %H4+"9GKҼ>(77]ASםSt*4KJetժU`be3ɘ[؎ :~w,wuWG}}г ?' fϴW0-hם}㲙熩œ9sp0b_}Eˍ(/9INh!Q# .%b& 0YSu0[~ϒJ u-1_#^A=j9RrycC„~ùfvd-dO;$5:2/Q[O vr#C 0&nu:L1=55,XTVze=ʊȎ۞KCnUƧZPI\<.bo:Lm:x ?p/,Tm~gK[W][Xd. E=rJnCH4f-h ;WpkʰU'mRp;3Y!%W)R vℭ9*.9RO ȥg%I|7)a~/Yf$6;Ǜ_rEfSMªזm e4rZɎ00?OO fI V!`AwB1c{{-O%9#6^B:47bń s2o9JA_ܶ8_rEYaO}^AI@>bw5BT!o@2ؽ{7~ɨup;1wʕߏX8㋏gڼzoMWՕlB)7~#v! :×C{JT?Ycϔ:wŕ$AU؃}$ee  U^A P ;: *_o49U 6{;+NWq?zq6qSQ-ԦQ "  ㈃ѵ0T. 8?DDه!aXx5{%om6Y ㋀)7Ӥ#@z'q^ؓ+n|/qRđaM2]DJ[ yTy*r:D f% d"#<Ԏ1hɗY 2i2x>|8uΩK$N$ g\RUيrogIvKo''"T{T]^EExmrpḧa !Au!PmEE buK; O~BChIh3p $޻ヒqy|hRn.o LRJ3oባ|ރ~rY (z|yd"Hqg˗h( . 4<kKehpT tP)̂ JR5hFP@Uk*◦"IVDw/8XUc^@F$$.qAAEPW˹e,a?hҥK= 0_C ,j-\snv8VaF#{xNQ8ʙ3g:=zYprίʇJQer2t8ĥP jE$ӛY-V&1v\7,EoC8:Ȭ.x;& ՙ_MVF1tܢ` 3#\1qa!.G 'qK0"QlPƖnnz;󦺻k{>W_uy9y~s`@ Mx0v@wq`FXq|z@ O #&%ɧiͶV,߲a`WfTZA 1J">m}_mS͏oƧU@.o1a{F>tZ.²hN;yo^x'-kb^%-YNh@K/u}\][^m*ZO^ 7:74o=7YsbӞ7FXS@^k3tʽp]ơTMIz6l=> ^@қ֭^ۇV[o׮ˈe%/@7Æ}4VSf[GwV]aߋ 7h^9V,(# "9#@%^xbYtmzٰ&=|ȼ2%assG.1XlL\tZH,,|d9w7g{+ۖ>˾C,!7K- .HÜ E7LJ~VoB^]^PiU0T38Gv#wI=nj1 -K鑈$e$NfW xDfCSlhZ?H};a!NƻV1-;4UQv14J d*3+ʅr@lF®2Oa!.e¶B]+ [uޢpذaTͲwe Jjy8TVTr l|};jسg/~3fm'o&Zn,67!`.6m9q?<V[0@`b@88}g E4Ȭ~8T4I G۶L?Xr%%ľ"4fDznڵMTBCT`W0 >GBsJ"w2pk Lsȏ9]By[a jcX+x~ -JWT?N ccP3&ou=ϙ8 @EQD8Z)=x*tc<<:!G 4!#JrcKE\H,yt]TBE}6 w eZ4o()i/**tб}i^C[5# Y*B gH3x XP0- đV% ˑfpuE7W !ن:,[9!wq Wy: mӧ5a=%SԴcK>WuE @[#:YA֮jMά%@&!֍jcG.6l[ ' 0#h%,``޺!o 4P1 8 PG ӎuƶz:IZ9[`.@Ds=7]9'wdLK\,~b@ȶ8nݹʑ bA ՠ@V"`i󿌻mN`i,~r%O h0O.BEl<(V}W`UMmv@FG2E-s_2SHC^y.s6PӞX[ؐpPcc(} d7CCf=ʗn0:9)H|,o_:$8 ƕZd8;ƾ1udQ•3dNo>ǎ{Eu8f#+4u = :N}H~:y17o(AWeS*<ȌI`a}Ma~?ܤv5Dp?Wsׁ-xpڭO=ݒj! @uHIX~FmNO %?:p JA|¦.U LI&R=]I"RbWoI 8>yLq՜B@$)mq^{nm< u]!.qn#nxP*Z&-=lq3sL3l!ܤyԼ>([l~~rI91x ZHw2jYM䛺sdco2Ε[Ovմ9'u70?j$B g'R@ \ЬZv7Hjnfm}_mS͏o& 8rܸ s}mn..α.Lz7pɿs n:en+~uqmn+;{ln!71%! 2K5y rȽq9z{ ~䔓qoGf`C{k)69%뜵a6 "*z^u5ĩW0:^6Q$^gۮ.ǎ8|b޸ӶÍ7:qBIN~շ96ܥ-jrSB sK$^b! d}C0 3BƽV:޾HћU;.6fֽYFb d|HzC8Odh B2QaD6P)5 /Y~BުR[WSlj@bY0nkOxM9TIx-.bN-Y#czjCl?FM8UB X%@afo%Œhណ~3;n#NjY)FbNr|HzC8E"oH&`at^t^^?A4/+*-@0׃GMor^#ۿ,1 /ҁ&lXr(-suW_w\]7}E Q%zO)S0Pױ&_~eS>yd;B1,)q;}p=ēO'GLzaW>Ģ?1`0oz;U0B;٨]+d7.Fkˋ6l>꽇ۭ~0xf[Jl:x`}hաk6Dnb>XkV~Ȑ!Py%D[)ycEII}QQysKBz9\&מǛRny{p;yH8aIz}/>󭍷 =>TB@a#yfcBޔ';k K{wYRX/T݌F w-7ܹllIXd?Q`_x$f(ǎzꩧΙ3Plg.l@F J-r_=۫-{u_.oU?Ynb_XkVs%*85YIKiCB SdfQ [z׭[REEL0;hҥcw,"w91l2S~iY-+о/>ᢂʃ*;o:#r[bv)`&F䆝lyû;i}l }2p &-gfĎ9*6~۠G9vo7v5,~v-T`ےo5B@QrSa3?p. # +Mlt<H ɳ,ZY(+?6`',:M8㤁&[UBvd7&BNFӗ9G_쇡⣺ 8ug.n7Gsβɖ-[{9!;9(Gz%B@!#1>ECA<66 sT->~m" U~nb}&VĚמ(%BQM򦟍²7׵k;) $SUE+]u{o6|u_oj֚CJVӥK_α)>& 'ͽRE! @ r5H-%Tw朏۷o :F`'dؑʕ+w]DDX8qX\*[u1=StQς_OSy~+]Y%%%T[Zz5ׯww} 3Vb$2%r ]aӻȖkI6mY G AW8Lēxk5׹{(T'hY*A]B4tرf͂XD\ِcr`$%-I>Sek9s&2.)ĉa Sſ=TcժU֞oUXrqb"/mG_p0-Ǜ(u].E[ԪpaoWw."kWVP-V~aj fg΁ܽxS.<ؼ{0xE G2xTB'@E;5M]Cv]JxIq[fzTܤHlB5gc+lEKL #a یufz[^^+1Q@VM0TBH<T: o <dm{u=hUtН5V" d%<0<OmӢ{$+@j-Ke ָv]p(tdg݊ǔݸ'ǵH!2XpF]B]fK`^V7VUjX [W:{ `?M5۲NFNT5nY`f^ o6{{B`Lf>e)񫟼L1=a^LʞvڱLjW电kCX즱VO|.KAz XzY`>'IF$U]qW34Wja=%%Vrmq_)w&asd}~W;{~qS<?hCW]?v]6ϗ fE@}° 5zbgϞ֊mvH9 \]oO'+wu0aAEIwͷ#4'ON(jl֯rolH.OySf1$ULݵ`9X"[ LN*^7>([l~~rI998:$Vf+d7.փg7q҆b{?s܋޽\ƽ5F'`^Vns6`ox!H \ӷ@W 2uеZ^{ꕐ.,,l߾}+?Q<*kwӷ4wUmض?//jT7k| OTGCvqiFz;  OUv˟}^umĈ~!}).^l=SȪݲN"Y+a%oW˪xxUQn&\fܹvZ*KM+7{qᦗm˿]/'֪epKr#DPKv|f IIsƯ}Ӳcay`^Y6b;[<+.sxs=`Jl Seϱ6ޱesrPN#ZAbX*vqԼoW7Z ~k;ѩf,@@{nbD0Oҝ.`˭;육٭h#i*o #~nP:6Ǡͫ0bVX^{-&,l[nw 3Zׯ,""6C&xҦM`x`ḇB@yyxh(_VZUV[Ł`( BC0Dnb{84˿{FN.ƻ0 ȷt:[-?TwO6bv?q;lǤmuG@/1^$PdKZXs+w#'Ww9h 6dPQ]z ;֊s9- 󃍁ƎEu]\|1ne5Zaze>.ʑf;=9tbaǕ[:70VVg6mN Pbk63!g|`3[!y4 T?8D$Zj T׆TQm݇۾<йCy n׌~؟R M[&ю'bN K;g 9aNG~a#.!$TNlJIвT9R6C1NJwE?O@hY*z'R,y/K5`̺캳s;Xdؖké6AٓǾ 3i,/-ҺjX"gZ8l X!cٚ |$w~C3$L%ZbX~_̘1#[-7IK"7v#[n'o[W=COZl駟-B Y%X[EE@MBv,{TaXOȻe5R~d,& rC5JQ+Wu#uviAΘ~ɏ.B ,7^4wM[KgZj7= As͞pU:װwo#?RMM=Dl !Tnf~=W&-[~qմ'l]> a{}%>Bl+Q7qxW_ tĭ0|ӧ2[VK ۏP]&."y:ZmqV<0ڍr8reבdbp']|;0vҔNn0ױFe0Fk\[) owѣ^|)dIx}˸VYtEҵYfrGXkS@l&NuHm62(FUh f4 CbMCXwb۷%ɜnC a_8&o!x2#TnxoC24 - r $#=@7Zp2|4aJ6@{1h@U^^CF_" m1Cu9$ u >h'? ^1pP? F]`T  @ A aTD2?^\|G\U!2 |tDM?0$srL;l-B<ڸ:c)1ccN7p)ct3PWcB @e+袋/XVa*D2o &i-yJ5W,=៊r53irMޢan8+` iq˶+ ,xQY2ĉ4p=71D)=7QTsTܻ&}azy7}'QeLX|J &c&.p TMYSgb&j2`;@jSb8CϊW=FdU܉ ) ~[g < / 'RB@ĉ,=F^s8Ru"[O4.>GR׫zڵ#FC@C 9V'Z,Mbgk1am ‹fIZ-]FaO!ofKv+B@&] 96c^{M@$϶iin- #7c6ͰI3.GO]Va+?K.kiJgΜywK4s5;iL'@t͔ʟ Zj8+-N )WƋ/(fKuCd (;p(J$HD{ԕ 8S8%6px0XgR)a!Ni@ -%"g gILW|* ! ڀgzfUXu9qiIXC1bī~C&l|ż5ۊZ'0U,!^TmWAQa9c FRiײTbg CBeq0c0~ ٰ+,Ov\b%Ȝwy|g,eJls,Qqؓ wQ6/UBhkc@BoFĂ m>G@EB/>Xe<ƴ)lSoڛʪn.j8nQ| I,Ċu]X&@-K%50^Xe;D7E2\a?d0[yD$],=^`-ÞSh{EeʃU{ w6 0\z)&ԦYnM D6p\ϑ N`3Ǔ!lUV-\5IPsp4cgG #8"/Ɇ6*bZnx壚P_vtҎ5]?4H$f"M|5_#l1bD2KYnPӆX60ښ =îC[Q'd2ި4 dCɊѶ3gsՂWSo@ MV;1# r3d0`_b;UƅׁTpv&, M`' 4J deXpO Bu}O.>AHB@(ZщϲaP2я+,EIVTZ]);棽N #픟w|b,.]ZԨcB I$ Xig.q{~5x!K,iQZC g(;up g6M ! Ҁ,7i]M lB@lMEddѣG[@x XQU{nJB@YnRI;5jŢڸqرco…٦{ަ 9s&wRB?eAplB?g.ԓ"{r)]}gę@ CY,e #\A 1;wHJn]! bD@&F$tڕ%ob"R|ɘm吟:u*ĥpTpp#dld*cQQDžYMN,شXTQ&I.#cC!}SPJ`x 2ž p! PPg@! ř7gvd І 1U!F&-~@@>$$'[]z>lGbG[nWR ! 2 n  :#N- 죏>j9avi|ͦӧSnI'7[neޙqg^[{馛ӫ=ٿ?l⋙g37yϞQ_s5q0q)^tp}w{b?< {KN}so仛᯾*87)Sp ?<2ʡq `ʒȍo,f޼y˗/I5gqKltsŋ hl=YYz5˖-Ny@qYgߍ3OX}&Ŋ@$0$6< K"OByjQ7JFR؉AΔ몄ɻr3YZjE @n}Qulh:t"&g>P4v@M Vi" VH5p0ƸNCk(޽{n .ռax1b  @&ڵ I~˜.c<ƘهH<@Sɰ*&IfwWPSH:jff̘ީuqUc90v- bh"&Yx hO"b Z J^ylSIWo*z暍󶽌V>AuCDM@Ȉ$&~UXV"`d*fϞ]VVHTVVOlAb׋@ d2Mhk:KUWv\,[n;olIgH1 E1Sn êMȇ/V@X;J9cdcVj5 = 1Vu hu5i\}=a̙3_/_Q &>,JyCeKq )| x3?=E)@1;L6*UB &d . 0a~'wm3b<q3Ԯ];TQ-!=Sx/zya.r Ynrj5"0x`.6+8 iB2 jժUliD@&h#j 퓍&ow$$VvĊ*g؀ugZ1dƵ '[E@U$U̲vȐ!̜9 ضk}'pd8@ĮY!;cMV=+ob;X10-ܤv56bn,cǎu~l8>H {P8҃!f1%eDn608[PІbM{i=g_97N:`lccIjE! ڀ^d6xcHm gqb1>r#ia+[)j q-ZCfc&F&~ Ax _!b$FchDnP-Ky!wCAqF*pP3 >([l~~rI967wݹ'>VU‡J7ېWS[rmiIP]ݖ_nզ=[xL yB@&KB `$W>o& x G ,F`#@V ]ęooBƆྲW]hM3z /ɢPFqKѿF[B .ثn:̑ijG{t%Ds-mڴ$rJ"F 2丟XVjb Z\zK@CPC'!uq L@ I!j7p7m΄Oa_|88y[/W~`fXH @w. NAm}(gc~)ɳ7޳p0O[qKyyaPPa"790bs@YpLJ?֭ϧg}´b^7}\1#98Xď@MMSB'xT0@V9I fvUX"]\!pGhјm쑾;NPIļ) jbs}jI팎/6y'+JJ}틊;tl_֫}c݉ ,7V}v{N<BB(z3 x(pdzqT~cJB ~n\=PdgMa~i=K KC_ݣ8aJH ܤg`g4A'M٣X3XnVZ+~aP KCI6ҟks=xz1!E@FC!I2|u͘1K.Pg"7ώMyQ]E%)0Z \C;>OUEТTkA I~g͚&9S$ك!q|4G>ʭHu_~P\[տ8|+ W$8B@Dx8N3g'AV,::H|^S9oˎ*nc\wۻkkBrDemF5!b,?Y,!r ɣF"r8ܝ6m7ߌo6_ KB|PmQq|'^PcՏ&o? ro6,$܎;w x._,YgOSrW/])*O=2ܲn ʔ)-Ѣy|F<ˆYL%ƌ-[S^Xɮʼ`{]?G @YH"7&~pPQuhκv :68ꏿh>-KbN~;@hZ4YЮc h!/C$2n<(uhjzj Kp`J Up#:[d 1\Ih#=`L{-.QwBkQC%A!-<ksO0y}?yAZNlB2p@ &[-aZ43@5ӒcBw%CCV 2a)7b,ׯw g+HTacZF’h@"mdiGF *و@>c(t/1==W&ѯWu)'Jc}yQp\2?Djy`g5 p,30X $Ka*$Wl-,roL1Ұ͢5"۹E!X&f TPn =@5~x舙d,IdVb PUL;qJf0χ:cx X]Ŵ76WRLcp^KODͱ*=75m{V~bVb/ѢE}YESخ`?|Dzŗ~׮]K!DZ… uwy,Y]( ^!}N\GF[fmyk,nC8z$/#ŃB^X<Ҽpe:0ֱδqߊe&Nx JLֺA#h:7x&yȤZd'MͮjYWܡ&=R&*Y5-y4ƙ aU]e\-9+`ɠaM3|Y*NXp;dA!./^l? m~w2tw[&z"K¤qOZI$*_W )dĵ]9nh"rqj{]9lGIةNѶw٘ L9 ,Z^RnIsXlm=a-RBBwLjukhZƫ8'la2DXs,TZdEK~DM\' aba]zj*Gמ,likUec[`, Umpu-|l/rk &̼ͮ[[0TxÁ6Y_P%dIXJ1,į:Q>ҥgg߷xEgpo 5{l|Dn?;l۹e`ᖝmvܲcPIʉ~@lörs|6laYiv- ]hrV2W^1`iz<&笑sb'~Qt#7 IwG~."e ӛq4dz٭ZeZ2-K%Ռ= wp  E$xqP *Vg܎?vd:IS"uB g`,ٖ0m6rM>]>l?,~_fܸq FYꄀ4l'EX[L\qiܤ]t8zF֩Ѹ@lkq?Cb{Nzq|kw'ywq/ yy}p1EJbI#jZ!+`X()pHA90GΕ$qԆa)MY64P~[o<,I[eb \E7b '8஋ey?or[UCW>Pm2XDn2vUԅ̏z0/Q|zJ.⬭-r#rweHBn*-'r1slu.^c,Bw(L%CR"I7dzti@ sN%lol'lMyaQ'*󂁆v1{ ڎ܈ܤqEQFeH4 D@3o 1l zO yc?3 c7q(Lr\ _EEhAA !Kz%f˙ɉNd4wڕ}y$@; o0)]$į|YiUYm7CB@!ZʤG--M@(vpSOe D}"zo߾d}Q|fCB ݵ}{;[aGe")쫖Z[R)! B@&*O%%>EE:/kuYZ}]o ȍMB$)B ܤ4QxTD8e0c k% gbFm"7"7i|Դ1! r\/_sy;"7"7 lA@e&4BaYx1;kjjUjB@aP\n_?s7ys䊛 _YB@! "7Ѡ,;׍w>~Œ&]s5ފVAm9T(*ne}iO7?޾UC4KF! ܤ~_`+ , nVxvoٲed8n$|I>z sƇ\z5SWŰUUU.n$ -(xD! 剀|pNf/_GJw @*Ir>#v<e! H4"7F4}ׯ7F•U$4;Gq ";ʹT%W R}C0 66(ܽG WTY! @!e **09>vדּZt)`|`0~hHHp7SO=e=x{uyAapUPͰ'|ڍ%.PU6yh=ujYYӞL|g!rvQo߾ `ۍK9B(lݺ NA\]x#U-I! " r*DNl,k!}|L /!ra/@~~1ر˙/ƪ(G/2,'UY/ %B@C@R2؏1Uz:6p@ 4Ѽa]f͚E(ڱcduU0-Ke@-KKDm! ĂV[ejաOvڳ4T_\Qe%VD@lRflÆ €ڧOQFyUų 5վaٓ\GjTޫjZiCab1uCB@!sDn>A2UsN~ɘ1=7y\~JXRRr饗{Jna;~lMsexVfΜ/,K3bޅ0[뮻 [,("t9Uy (:hhHZ@P•dkdN,#nΪpJTYݶce]mTS! MAmLUIoZ+naV2"&wZi(*/),(lYkX߱]câ5"^'~lwij,?!owG +HLbҫW/֧81֋$\f@J! Mb`~'Zm% 9G|; dzČ!qZ ת妵"# K3aF MB@!;y|5|N@t0[~I'v</gχrEܶxf;Ɇ-G \ ‚vخc9f c;,#`G𶹁sO$v N3)q! @v" rZ5"erndqʤgJLPDԇ1͛ٱ rCFA7!y Z$kyРAp;P&3{l#Rvv CP>olm{XjN4?qbl^^+RZSEv4{@ ,1ccM1255N"j*rXFCEتsPܪCdvWPzCo| rR !"7D byv`fkG4'88\$.qp3Jv@Ul`K7Z_9D4כ.]NsNwU=B@=:/`,4yBk]vlih!-&;_m)"k ! H7"7鞁mj2dBkn 9;S2zhd:8)͉hhGjC-h)"k! =s)JD~cEII}QQysKBzV~bWseNK%0LzAB&kRYȍ_2e.mkSXpįlݾn%p,ˍX%`R!MnsQ/GqѰB I^ve&r$ ُ$y4n5)i 7`cCp_Yݫ.|Ѐ1*B@#=7 Gڵk!pᎏ mdC#[a11.Z]\Ga&qXL2cΟ?)={6p;0Ӫ`fX] qFNFb7pfzf%bsFv~wΝV,ҜhYOz$r}|`(̉߷Ft۳D@zKy!r#r_@DnR=i)D܆"v1+ڀ=67iA@{nR {wM5.jO! @I%ŌöP( ! PDn8vF併3abFday(N R%B@tpLyd\9 K,ر$Q#iVӉǙ3grLo~SeD5NQ*-<$ <SF!  p 8q"pua`96lje_rݸF30*=DsV u*=$9SP1jl B 5K껣d! @" rsxһvjs۷{}0XQ( y.[< 9yx^L<K'S'¦4E 9c. +!YӮ'[27p%OqHJ~q B3.ps?ׄ<,DnO41r`#q9@8N8 FJ6,)5kU$ H Ln1~xǖh<0 <򑐤![Ӧ:n=+y(;Hbѡ",>8G5L! @" ?798采ܪUVx9 PaMKO<D! ˍf$E9PdgMa~i=K KC_9➸nk߾}NR5#B qrs8RM,̝}لě|޸Fl@n MSA8s(B IfH<GS]2B@! |ȍo&qSv g686|%-MU=_9k]wE~Fq̧o8y(ΆB9DnxyH%@si9f3dȐul|I#Cq6L "7 8* 6Lroߎ>:xt.+0h\B@! M6<NM,Ce,BW?De~В<gk B@!sEd555~ؾS\\5ܴ$CG"7~6'kP`Hlp<:T>c ,=W^yIbMVާ[#نMh!n>bRȍM=bDnxr5D" r#rIH&PLt[! H9"7)\ ! D@&JB@!rDn9[UmQЪd8L!SB i‘֤t_! I OT]pg =d %dv[8p"C w|ee(QBfrE3g422mit|ɂCzB@ #tR<C/HdܩS'Scš0vƍ 0~/cǎguK/abrNjr7zꩮSN52D]\8qD _=aٹsѣGCkV^} 7p5M*N:j@! @I2MԯX i.K.޽}NfiӦ wE8:thB@ IҶC8}xPBvoǎ\F{n2D[wPX.kOH KN\m9 zIhB_EpX瞣+5,2&O6ަљ,D2\ܴ4 ᏶/,T )܈$㹒N! juA8SGe=ߝ?wO.7'ڒB@!Dn{4iw"JdTkjOiԤm}_mS͏o#%B@4!ed`Íw6c'tu.ٳgskʔ)<w9?3ly_{O>$[8'bwo޼RrFhi5i2$;k=w\]`N3PoŘOA8;)~(#܃ pꛊv~Ib2[ FIrJ`6tW(D-MCPc#%O[QCj TNoN#! ZA@&kOLh|͚5 /5={dֶq]4i[G$،aXM=@Y`!!,HRKn4B^^`0PPr!@ѻi V0VH ZJ _/U#5ݻe0 k@pL2Wan:6SN9r24auBq<:sP݁y;`=ywmyQqxwwz~v9c\K5f#G HI3ggotS`.G'h"-r8Pa[duIdei5t$W\ r{~l]Khs SI-K+ȍ(=䇙+Km%%>EE:/kuYZ}]'_j@n +Xr` J&O̊?OjLe,G{8 @bp$,Qzڴi7|3hX;ӔPtVBZ=bC4P*KP><0Ӫ`fX] qFNFb"7|`)!hY*:N;;Nxiʿ=/>Y=~_|ڿ9a~]fjuĮp \;LbPh 8;.%>r6crPS1a>>r%^{1x5xVTiu23JZ4"7lI/X<ųg,=+kh[]]}gr-X _jĈal6p7lf(`1jؙF y>1#c'b8©`ÙI*r Ֆrƴq=< uIlhUʕ= 6?pG%,7 ZA&d,7959$l0Y'pňy1& /d[SvΆj8Z k %Q'!EB@! ҊM'g@ Fxu#̋XxO~Lh Zp&9rNKj]ݰt=fQB@!5hY*%Iش,l3B2bI!SrӍڴRB@8تYQhն㴪0"&ƃ ! @I$P \ŰMؘWylv[01LZ@9n (|!o 2 ;xmoBƆྲW]c t ! H4"7 CVk.-X[9T[5d#,l!u)G&Ld6s9AЉ]2+1!)hvj^U5 !ʥD! @I$}5>`$\ICIb<a݁I&V.!9m-q4ܽ{D I! @*Iy,  DZ'0L̚w]D+8g1x&b8IC+?8托Xl8B@d @t6wdD'&/1: ʦ: M@@&;1)Xѡoϒ>`Ĉ"7I=ӔdڌB I,:12D ̦?K,i6*0Wmjɽ)#66ř Rb(r磥B@$I QW"UVM6m޽-g8eE$Y!{ؗ ]NmFa[`s,F n qCjꂢ'|b iB@! r8,NSdƍ%Uf[A-8 Q`-*;>{ d+/ps[ap]rqKܰa2T1@$>r8܅H񑺴>f݌i@B@!p>`M{+pCmC1+5-k &A$s֭;N(7qbkĉW\qvq$xN]i Ilw3! m($WN=TkZpBez!?wqk.0oz  pa tR,h`zĺ… GVjPSO9plM}{uyAapUPͰ'|ڍ /^|g& _׆▦A}B@xƿbNk&aqTۅ+0=q#gkyWy;a~;TQ@m0y6)z0T-! OОLPu& x?>=`U%M>5w\3$)X+D<p F=f9r=Ԟ)@@& Մ[p~EM-49{rmK/i B 5fM`!c&75Sq?U{֠l :>?XСrhfÖg"rT!-"7".9xرci=ആj\aԩSɳkX U18m2r#]椓N'sg*W։8gu"L38wIDIm>3g86; cT&&$,@ О& .,ଏ#EК믿C $Zbz*1X]WTFsΛle6@1bĈӧEJ،JB@$$hl(5 Wp5]_D|={ws-FBNiBYVu(3)}B@! , i4Idyl6'Դ2p@ 4( gڡ"[Uj0OzuCȍ "MN[F@@Ӂzu[Ο'TϛCa62uS! rtNy޳͇[dۛ4Y9T(*ne}iO7?޾ULL@KX! R~RAN0'q#k-m7;L51T[݉q@oBƆྲW]c B@!"7!ƙ-p%zxÆ |43< "i_ve$#IUn8q"Up $wO>ļN޽+'~ hB@! r2oFOp1#ɉbq{qOCplnmod套^oMSTČp.91!s@cǢ.gn.uK3dj^! @DtpG]wGpС˟IGy({Z@! ҀM@ORf0ӿnݺ!C;0a>d1ԇ #G$.!:ިRA4SR+IE@&T_o\5j;ܼzraX)oΟB@! r ӭcyRee LqnYbsn;y(N}! h PrNd555s< P,Cq.<,dɬJio[P yg/nݺCjL! @DEbu=|KKJJ,Y}FB@C@&K_^>,]̙3)$CSN~GpcC[lnSO==X|q?\H_'kF3PB@&SO=e1[?+;wp =r8Y! dɀgଳ΢E=<dz4uT!aA.s7pë 4h_~9v >u䩎ロLUUCU8)..E! %8f;ƱFPLi?MN14&Bܴ9B@! |ȍ/EB@! ڊM[z 83q ! 2vx^;vЖN%u"\! G@&~ AC޽ ``9|ʢPA*T6̷ jDnzz4;6V"CNN TUB@! r:3{nXq Y:S2B g٩of .Xb1EE)B{Z 8%@B@y(N/zS7{,-ARQ?DB Eܤh7}55qDiãB@ͽKse%kY9H|5(!wZ:XZ}A1Guؾ뫚EC;>OUER6 Eg5*eIYC"7"7){Ԑq" qƕϷ6޾&Ȳ꺚z?8ЋYmذ!)HB@ ˑd}vx7MH\dI5m.rZ%a9L l,yvk }omذVUUZfz4m vvNNB@$,Ki8S!V^}QGǎk,3gh)۹$LsΕe9餓_O0ٳ]cǏ7y5„5x[v-X]X^q/! <LbSH--xCK#G\`U=ѣGZ>iwֹ_5w*ՅC͟VC5êZp3ztj7rxOM\SOa<#?]we;o.Їɓ'}ٓ&MܟLefM2yV@v#ˍe]̃ܽk㏇ {w%>"i<:HR΁`HdPoֲe\u#dI_A%CH[>38A!KtM Mϛ7PB ixcWâO7ooA+ -)VC}m<,lu8X݇cb>24݄?/) gG}B@Ąa^q6;íWya5k֍7سgOQ3 +K.tiy Uu09~q5[uMkeipEA zd2] m5O uX0tߛpI=zutuBG b:u ls(Mf V#kw+J~%>B@eY^gb؀C`$FdLjqE1*RngVuEukSBSmꢍXVbM5dw-1\wލXdv)o릞gօ\0֩ݺف5ݴon50 @'w\},ш/b;`E:A\2nw 7 {!4Ō[& B&+MfSOq!i% 5SJ0-]u7l,[S^Xɮʼ`{]?G n,Zj  !.|DnA8luf޺;t/n wLߢ"ʗ|`΃>?ֈ}{l`]0{4tua.r Uk2 .ĘtyM\hѳ>#[bǕ8vz)+H&&r>5$@bY =fúu\}?aC+..6sN~ɘ1=7y\~JS^>\jɃ SUUe6Vu4n0q9 bz-1ma%0*+Gw2[:B@d 7J-["IZ'aY5Gc뒭 `7"ϕXep x+,0%[+fiMiɬG]M.r+G۷{5̙3VZxȍMҞ5)B abMF#EFc ; pf+Ъ}! hB@!d4B@! @D䄀B@@@&aTuО7W/;?PTILi6! hVȍ 13Y'kDI$$ aX_Gt MM?7R똫n0hPc^}[o_zdYeuu]M]}OƖ ($\'B@!,ӧO͟'ܼ"ܳ>䓿ngb)),,{ P׮]{ws7nͅ^r 'x(}jmGo6lذ}v"YK.&ЧO3d 'p!*2 /@4%uuu}Q.J|)A$#߻w/zrA@y?n= [Ꭸeh٠ d'h;)4u[WNdࠣ s'SgϞ?͎NZھK"|q&/ظGI'z׫[{Ν;xG}o?0a0 $.KK"!40˛6mGMiRrk̙Q*GuVTTpg=7o^z5ZCY/DECt5jI[hHÁZ)! - =t NcyP1\!FD.N gM!wFھ/>ᢂʃ*;o2 74!dB 4Ph#%$өS'pd LipXulN qc. PC'!uVB@! @&PJ U~k4aG!hp# G "ZÏnݽvr<HDIxꩧOU[[N՜7v5,~v-T`ےo5׶a80)Tr cx{kXw,0f zV=˨%lôB@V[n,:PO,N#ڳgϿ,EA !1v+>V;BXyAl@-(Qfir\jb=@.0)g,رazh,iqYv:l} bgy&jYܡ90MX1TTqR.\!Xx^#O9N9]+ܑ#ּ?eּh%%%cǎ Ç3o<ƈ=n6 ,43Z9әVH'/@cZ#s7=;PqwxQ}z eT--Kd" !  .c3ΨӗM=UϬ չ`S=uibXԴL5,Qa31&QΌ/4;S-:)r HM9Ek%򭵕`^_B!S{]w Tl)w EޢYF@$"C߿5҄ ^Tv`w+}IJ"7"7IyT$ rP2Zcى@OKe'B@!djB@! =B@! @V! rUө! "7za\ρB kɚX17C!5ު:V8}wC_2f05iҤ^z nm'E(]XxTE2df{TUbT [˾F#B +ȟ>}zVL)m6f̘:EUTT4hP~ر8S .7a,?XPCG]:tqNG6Q=B=wq> TdP/S>sE ?{'Lx%D&'%|kd^ BIF~; &k EzwN+ơ֪YOb{%C!@^x9u}ʡSEEsC2^pǜz4X! ,7~-Z DnC/H)SZT_RXP.³ִ:ciqFKel2{R裏8p 0lqX'j AE;rn޼vB uQE [~DZ}*>j=h =\bEtIJ!Dn҃ZC)/ݵgIai>=KnDClW_`8dl*B-B͚5oĨC~HL kEc:BߐA wyaJ19T/++ָkBcԩSHR!z&#T#F<+;Q0+;{0or)Ў޽{c`"Br+CiC,"4wύY & B)9>nZOh !D-]@nXr kn3XK, 0`Μ9 WB@"zَ_I']wu>{#kvƜ:1\zW_}=ӪA@&58?"C/8y䒒>-6&~]tL hύ F;HHlugxZ=ܜ򃦁U$[M6GJMزe3ppckLێj ! |ȍ'G] l;\y=G/! @Ij8~FX+~.\cbN,su+z#ДU @cǢ.gn. {nXbI+NJB@J1jG݇۾<йCy n=KO?+0z>/btZʗN E@&G'> ރ5h(,<:T:}9 @%{"7FXX|#?1ͱMLpIX =7)YMdmt9LB@x B@d"7Y5pQ=x01􄩊%6Fi9L|8,kDr3# 8G={_|A :uZv/qO"oIXJ$'NH\ZNɱcR>|$`k?_7=dUn|M5d=_T{nxm! C@=B E@.Հ`J7o5yf!a?FBQ8w\a.X( ^|^ݵ䕤'4apٲe({իXgHaJdjF!&Dn* R4tE!NJ9Q.++ر#0)S`V5ka%zifN;4 ?pHɫ&wy%ákۨq L;.+7#WQ^B@4 e4&s X4h7vuƍ]B-} ?JN2ݻwc1d¦[0$L Na NؔS++1y7XM74nܸV V?# rQ߄@QQY)sKlmSZB@" rX \)P"795B@G@5B! 9MNM+B 9B@"795B@G@&X#B@!StkB@! cP! @N! rSӭ ! ~-hIENDB`}DyK _Toc133904696}DyK _Toc133904697}DyK _Toc133904698}DyK _Toc133904699}DyK _Toc133904700}DyK _Toc133904701}DyK _Toc133904702}DyK _Toc133904703}DyK _Toc133904704}DyK _Toc133904705}DyK _Toc133904706}DyK _Toc133904707}DyK _Toc133904708}DyK _Toc133904709}DyK _Toc133904710}DyK _Toc133904711}DyK _Toc133904712}DyK _Toc133904713}DyK _Toc133904714}DyK _Toc133904715}DyK _Toc133904716}DyK _Toc133904717}DyK _Toc133904718}DyK _Toc133904719}DyK _Toc133904720}DyK _Toc133904721}DyK _Toc133904722}DyK _Toc133904723}DyK _Toc133904724}DyK _Toc133904725}DyK _Toc133904726}DyK _Toc133904727}DyK _Toc133904728}DyK _Toc133904729}DyK _Toc133904730}DyK _Toc133904731}DyK _Toc133904732}DyK _Toc133904733}DyK _Toc133904734}DyK _Toc133904735}DyK _Toc133904736}DyK _Toc133904737}DyK _Toc133904738}DyK _Toc133904739}DyK _Toc133904740}DyK _Toc133904741}DyK _Toc133904742}DyK _Toc133904743}DyK _Toc133904744}DyK _Toc133904745}DyK _Toc133904746}DyK _Toc133904747}DyK _Toc133904748}DyK _Toc133904749}DyK _Toc133904750}DyK _Toc133904751}DyK _Toc133904752}DyK _Toc133904753}DyK _Toc133904754}DyK _Toc133904755}DyK _Toc133904756}DyK _Toc133904757}DyK _Toc133904758}DyK _Toc133904759}DyK _Toc133904760}DyK _Toc133904761}DyK _Toc133904762}DyK _Toc133904763}DyK _Toc133904764}DyK _Toc133904765}DyK _Toc133904766}DyK _Toc133904767}DyK _Toc133904768}DyK _Toc133904769}DyK _Toc133904770}DyK _Toc133904771}DyK _Toc133904772}DyK _Toc133904773}DyK _Toc133904774}DyK _Toc133904775}DyK _Toc133904776}DyK _Toc133904777}DyK _Toc133904778}DyK _Toc133904779}DyK _Toc133904780}DyK _Toc133904781}DyK _Toc133904782}DyK _Toc133904783}DyK _Toc133904784}DyK _Toc133904785}DyK _Toc133904786}DyK _Toc133904787}DyK _Toc133904788}DyK _Toc133904789}DyK _Toc133904790}DyK _Toc133904791}DyK _Toc133904792}DyK _Toc133904793}DyK _Toc133904794}DyK _Toc133904795}DyK _Toc133904796}DyK _Toc133904797}DyK _Toc133904798}DyK _Toc133904799}DyK _Toc133904800}DyK _Toc133904801}DyK _Toc133904802}DyK _Toc133904803}DyK _Toc133904804}DyK _Toc133904805}DyK _Toc133904806}DyK _Toc133904807}DyK _Toc133904808}DyK _Toc133904809}DyK _Toc133904810}DyK _Toc133904811}DyK _Toc133904812}DyK _Toc133904813}DyK _Toc133904814}DyK _Toc133904815}DyK _Toc133904816}DyK _Toc133904817}DyK _Toc133904818}DyK _Toc133904819}DyK _Toc133904820}DyK _Toc133904821}DyK _Toc133904822}DyK _Toc133904823}DyK _Toc133904824}DyK _Toc133904825}DyK _Toc133904826}DyK _Toc133904827}DyK _Toc133904828}DyK _Toc133904829}DyK _Toc133904830}DyK _Toc133904831}DyK _Toc133904832}DyK _Toc133904833}DyK _Toc133904834}DyK _Toc133904835}DyK _Toc133904836}DyK _Toc133904837}DyK _Toc133904838}DyK _Toc133904839}DyK _Toc133904840}DyK _Toc133904841}DyK _Toc133904842}DyK _Toc133904843}DyK _Toc133904844}DyK _Toc133904845}DyK _Toc133904846}DyK _Toc133904847}DyK _Toc133904848}DyK _Toc133904849}DyK _Toc133904850}DyK _Toc133904851}DyK _Toc133904852}DyK _Toc133904853}DyK _Toc133904854}DyK _Toc133904855}DyK _Toc133904856}DyK _Toc133904857}DyK _Toc133904858}DyK _Toc133904859}DyK _Toc133904860}DyK _Toc133904861}DyK _Toc133904862}DyK _Toc133904863}DyK _Toc133904864}DyK _Toc133904865}DyK _Toc133904866}DyK _Toc133904867}DyK _Toc133904868}DyK _Toc133904869}DyK _Toc133904870}DyK _Toc133904871}DyK _Toc133904872}DyK _Toc133904873}DyK _Toc133904874}DyK _Toc133904875}DyK _Toc133904876}DyK _Toc133904877}DyK _Toc133904878}DyK _Toc133904879}DyK _Toc133904880}DyK _Toc133904881}DyK _Toc133904882}DyK _Toc133904883}DyK _Toc133904884}DyK _Toc133904885}DyK _Toc133904886}DyK _Toc133904887}DyK _Toc133904888}DyK _Toc133904889}DyK _Toc133904890}DyK _Toc133904891}DyK _Toc133904892}DyK _Toc133904893}DyK _Toc133904894}DyK _Toc133904895}DyK _Toc133904896}DyK _Toc133904897}DyK _Toc133904898}DyK _Toc133904899}DyK _Toc133904900}DyK _Toc133904901}DyK _Toc133904902}DyK _Toc133904903}DyK _Toc133904904}DyK _Toc133904905}DyK _Toc133904906}DyK _Toc133904907}DyK _Toc133904908}DyK _Toc133904909}DyK _Toc133904910}DyK _Toc133904911}DyK _Toc133904912}DyK _Toc133904913}DyK _Toc133904914}DyK _Toc133904915}DyK _Toc133904916}DyK _Toc133904917}DyK _Toc133904918}DyK _Toc133904919}DyK _Toc133904920}DyK _Toc133904921}DyK _Toc133904922}DyK _Toc133904923}DyK _Toc133904924}DyK _Toc133904925}DyK _Toc133904926}DyK _Toc133904927}DyK _Toc133904928}DyK _Toc133904929}DyK _Toc133904930}DyK _Toc133904931}DyK _Toc133904932}DyK _Toc133904933}DyK _Toc133904934}DyK _Toc133904935}DyK _Toc133904936}DyK _Toc133904937}DyK _Toc133904938}DyK _Toc133904939DyK Ixpointer(/descendant-or-self::ap:Topic[@OId='JqhK11ROgEu0rGkFHmlO+Q==']){DyK  Stack_effectDyK Moisture_and_air_flow_linkagesDyK yK http://www.toolbase.org/tertiaryT.asp?DocumentID=2298&CategoryID=1014DyK yK http://www.toolbase.org/tertiaryT.asp?DocumentID=2298&CategoryID=1014 DyK yK http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=home_solutions.hm_improvement_icedamsDyK yK thttp://www.ornl.gov/sci/roofs+walls/articles/ice_dam.html DyK yK http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=home_solutions.hm_improvement_icedamsDyK yK thttp://www.ornl.gov/sci/roofs+walls/articles/ice_dam.htmlDyK yK (http://hes.lbl.gov/DyK yK http://homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/94/940111.htmlDyK FcD:\Task 4.2 - Draft Protocols\Air Sealing\Air Sealing v1 4-3 gt (2).doc - Attachments\pic18633.jpg)DyK yK http://www.state.mn.us/mn/externalDocs/Commerce/Attic_Bypasses_110602012529_AtticBypass.pdfDyK FtD:\Task 4.2 - Draft Protocols\Air Sealing\Air Sealing v1 4-3 gt (2).doc - Attachments\Southface air-seal poster.pdfDyK yK http://www.energy.ca.gov/efficiency/qualityhomes/caulking_sealing.htmlDyK yK http://www.cwc.ca/design/building_science/internal_barriers/caulks.phpDyK FyD:\Task 4.2 - Draft Protocols\Air Sealing\Air Sealing v1 4-3 gt (2).doc - Attachments\Caulking a foam board in place.JPGDyK Blower_door_testingDyK Pressure_DiagnosticsDyK Using_Infrared)DyK yK http://www.state.mn.us/mn/externalDocs/Commerce/Attic_Bypasses_110602012529_AtticBypass.pdfDyK yK http://www.energystar.gov/ia/home_improvement/Home_Sealing_Brochure04.pdfDyK yK http://www.energystar.gov/ia/home_improvement/home_sealing/DIY_COLOR_100_dpi.pdf-DyK yK http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/publications/infosource/pub/renovate/airleakage/english/airleakage.pdfDyK &Speaking_points_for_customer_benefitsDyK yK Xhttp://www.dsireusa.org/index.cfm?EE=0&RE=1DyK yK jhttp://www.eere.energy.gov/weatherization/apply.htmlDyK yK Lhttp://www.epa.gov/radon/zonemap.htmlDyK Reduced_ice_damsDyK Mechanical_ventilationDyK yK http://www.homeenergy.org//archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/93/930309.htmlDyK yK \http://irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/pubs/ctus/14_e.htmlDyK yK bhttp://www.epa.gov/asbestos/pubs/insulation.htmlDyK yK http://www.homeenergy.org//archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/95/951108.htmlDyK yK http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumer/your_home/energy_audits/index.cfm/mytopic=11190DyK yK Lhttp://hvac.bobvila.com/Video/41.htmlDyK yK http://www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/94/940110.htmlDyK yK Zhttp://epb1.lbl.gov/ventilation/program.htmlDyK yK http://homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/00/000511.html/DyK yK http://www.state.mn.us/mn/externalDocs/Commerce/Indoor_Ventilation_110802042008_IndoorVent.pdfDyK yK bhttp://irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/pubs/cbd/cbd245_e.htmlDyK yK http://www.toolbase.org/techinv/techDetails.aspx?technologyID=202DyK yK http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/housingandclothing/DK7284.htmlDyK yK http://www.homeenergy.org//archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/94/940908.htmlDyK F]Desktop\PIER Protocols\Procedures\Performing a Blower Door Test - Procedure CA 080604_CM.docDyK FbDesktop\PIER Protocols\Procedures\Inspecting Combustion Appliance Zones - Procedure 080604_CM.docDyK F_Desktop\PIER Protocols\Procedures\Inspecting the Thermal Boundary - Procedure CA 080604_CM.docDyK yK 6http://www.homeenergy.org/DyK yK http://www.homeenergy.org//archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/95/951111.htmlDyK yK http://www.homeenergy.org//archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/95/950309.htmlDyK yK Rhttp://eere.energy.gov/EE/buildings.htmlDyK yK 0http://www.pathnet.org/DyK yK http://www.toolbase.org/tertiaryT.asp?TrackID=&CategoryID=1549&DocumentID=2299DyK yK http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=home_sealing.hm_improvement_sealing DyK F}D:\Task 4.2 - Draft Protocols\Air Sealing\Air Sealing v1 4-3 gt (2).doc - Attachments\EPA Home Sealing DIY_COLOR_100_dpi.pdfDyK yK http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=new_homes_features.hm_f_reduced_air_infiltrationDyK yK ^http://oikos.com/library/airsealing/index.htmlDyK yK bhttp://irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/pubs/cbd/cbd104_e.htmlDyK FqD:\Task 4.2 - Draft Protocols\Air Sealing\Air Sealing v1 4-3 gt (2).doc - Attachments\IR of pipe penetration.JPG( i8@8 NormalCJ_HaJmH sH tH R@R  Heading 1$<@&5CJ KH OJQJ\^JaJ T@T  Heading 2$<@& 56CJOJQJ\]^JaJN@N  Heading 3$<@&5CJOJQJ\^JaJB@B  Heading 4$<@&5CJ\aJF@F  Heading 5 <@&56CJ\]aJ@@  Heading 6 <@&5CJ\aJ22  Heading 7 <@&88  Heading 8 <@&6]F F  Heading 9 <@&CJOJQJ^JaJ<A@< Default Paragraph FontN>@N Title$<@&a$5CJ KHOJQJ\^JaJ $O$ MM Title6O6 MM Topic 1 & F h6O!"6 MM Topic 2 & F 6O126 MM Topic 3 & F 86OAB6 MM Topic 4 & F 6OQR6 MM Topic 5 & F 6ab6 MM Topic 6 & F p6qr6 MM Topic 7 & F  66 MM Topic 8 & F @ 66 MM Topic 9 & F  0O0 MM Map Graphic@ TOC 1*B@*  Body Textx$O$ MM Notes$$ MM Empty,O, MM Hyperlink.U@.  Hyperlink >*B*ph0O0 MM Attachments!&@& TOC 2 "^&@& TOC 3 #^&@& TOC 4 $^&@& TOC 5 %^,@b, Header & !, @r, Footer ' !9!'YZ Y4:v-s$ODu=m#S < r  : r ( [ T  U !`&l?wNaZP{xFx@8k.k a&] :k"o5c; ] %!c!!! "7"h"""A#x###$a$$$$,%p%%&C&u&& '9'v''(5(w(( )^)) *?*z***+X+++,Y,,,B---.G...,/~// 0j00 1V1112t222:333364}444 5F55551666'7e777:8n8889H9u9999:::B:;e<">>@ABBCDDD+EEEEEhFF.GGG HHHH,J/KKKKLMWMNNOO#P9PPoRTTTTfTT"UpUUaVlVWXYY,ZZ[[T\Z\e\\^^_9`C```accd0eee'fvffXgaghi'jkjjjQk`kfkSl\lllnoooooqqwrrrrrt!v)v2v#w2wpxvxxkz{{|| }U}}~`~p~ā[σ؃.w̄Ԅ$2 SɉމIXdŋWgN]-5:E\hƖЗrۛon4C'00ĦΨԨ!(̭ͭqz۰i1Psž ;AX;[w8`=JaQ .8CLTZhmy&1PlmuyT0Eu )3=X stCHS`:4dYn+3HlkLo /5  V}5B~py_s6DC l   _    v  G H M _ v ntYe} NOR-z -D 0 X   !!! "g"}""'#H####${$$M%a%'&9& '4'' (5(((():)))* *T*`***e+J,d,,,U-i-x--m../B///0d11 2<2(33P4X4455c6U7Y7_7d88j9z99999999000000"0#0$0#0$0$0$0%0%0%0"0#0"0#0#0#00"0#0#0#0"0#0#0#0"0"0#0#0#0#0"0#0#0"0#0#0"0#0#0"0#0#0#00"0"0"0"0"0"0"0"0"0"0"0"0"0"0"0"0"0"00"0#0"0#0#0$0$0$0$0$0$0$0$0%0%0$0$0$0#0"0#0#0#0"0#0#0#0"0#0#0#0"0#0#0"0#0"0#0#00"0"0#0#0#00"0#0$0$0%0%0%0%0#0"0#0#0#0#0"0#0$0$0#0$0$0$0%0%0$0$0$0$0#0$0$0$0$0$0$0$0#0$0$0%0$0%0#0"0#0#0"00"0#0#0#0#0#0#0#0#0$0#0$0$0$0"0#0#0#0$0$0$0#0$0#0$00"0#0#0#0#0#0$0$0$0#0#0$0%0$0%0$0%0$0%0$0%0$0#0$0%0"0#0#0#0"0#0$0$0$0#0#0$0#0#0#00"0#0$0#0"0#0"0#0"0"0#0#00"0"0"0"00 0 099( 0::0:0:0:0:0:8 0::0@0@( 0::0B8 0BB0D8 0BB0D8 0BB0EH 0EE0E0E0E0EH 0EE0{GH 0EE0H 0990}H0}H0}H( 0}H}H 0990K( 0KK0L0L( 0KK0N( 0KK0O 0!0P0P0P0P 0PP( 0 T T0T0T0T0T0T0T( 0 T T0[V0[V0[V0[V0[V0[V0[V( 0 T T0[ 0PP( 0N\N\0T\0T\0T\0T\0T\( 0N\N\03`( 0N\N\0`0` 0PP0c0c0c0c0c0c0c0c 0PP0Rg0Rg0Rg0Rg0Rg0Rg0Rg0Rg( 0RgRg0Zk( 0RgRg0Ml( 0RgRg0l0l( 0RgRg0n 0PP( 0oo0o( 0oo0q 0PP( 0qrqr0|r( 0qrqr0r0r 0PP( 0vv0#v( 0vv0w 0PP( 0jxjx0px0px( 0jxjx0{0{0{0{0{0{0{( 0jxjx0Z~0Z~ 0 00000 00Ƀ0Ƀ0Ƀ 00Ƅ 00  00 00000000 00R0R0R 00 00Q 0 0 0 0H 0 0' 0 0 0 04 00 00V 00 0 0 0( 0!0ږ 0( 0ʗʗ0000( 0ʗʗ8 00՛8 00i8 00008 008 00.8 00!8 008 0H 00H 00Ȩ8 0008 0 0ǭ8 0 0k0k0k( 0ʗʗ 0( 0~~0( 0~~000( 0~~ 0( 0000( 00( 0 0( 0550;0;( 0550( 0550 0( 0UU0q0q0q0q( 0UU!02 0( 0770D 0( 00000000( 0 0 0000000000000000000000000000000 00( 00000( 00s0s( 000 0 0NN( 08 08 0H 00H 00H 00*H 00( 00o 0NN( 0( 0( 0( 0 0NN0707( 07708 0008 0( 0778 008 008 00=H 0==0H 0==08 00M8 00{8 008 00( 07708 008 008 008 0008 0008 008 00( 0770S8 0SS08 0SS0%H 0%%0B0B8 0SS0eH 0ee0F( 0770 0NN( 00)( 00 0NN 0 00( 00( 00( 00( 00( 00P( 00/( 00x( 008 00( 00j8 0jj8 0jj8 0jj0 00( 00000000( 000000( 008 00= 8 00 8 00Y ( 00 0 0 0 0 8 0  ( 00Y 8 0Y Y 0  0 0hh( 0nn0( 0nn00( 0nn0z( 0nn0_0_0_0_0_( 0nn00008 00L8 008 00t( 0nn( 0nn0'8 0''H 008 0''H 0  0* 8 0''H 0  0 8 0''H 0!!0!8 0''H 0a"a"0w"8 0''0!#( 0nn8 0##H 0##0# 0hh0u$( 0u$u$0G%( 0u$u$0!&( 0u$u$0' 0hh( 0''0(8 0((8 0((0(8 0((0)( 0''0)( 0''0*8 0**0N*( 0''0*!0*( 0''0D,( 0''0, 0 0O-O-( 0c-c-0r-0r-0r-8 0r-r-0/( 0c-c-0/0/0/ 0O-O-( 011020202 0O-O-( 0J4J40R4 0O-O-!0505 0O-O-( 0O7O70S7( 0O7O70^8 0  0d9d9 0d9d9 0d9d9 0d9d90@&0 0/ } UZ Ur;( ^"W$&'k)p+Y-R/=1x357A9_;=fIT]V&-=O r: h&,3:D,NaZiuуŏX:36_!'T.(7=='UWZi  9UW02h68Vrt (+Rnq".JM^z} #?BTps 8;Lhky!2NQb~  7 : Q m p |   5 8 Q m p  # & : V Y d   3 O R h   4 P S f ?[^!$Kgjz  :=Vru-IL^z}@\_s9UXi  /KNZvyWsv%ADWsv;>u36Jfi ),Jfiw @\_|!$<X[|58Jfi Njm03B^av69b~ < X [ ! !#!B!^!a!v!!!!!!!"""2"5"G"c"f""""""" #<#?#W#s#v########$$@$\$_$t$$$$$$$$$ %'%*%O%k%n%%%%% & &"&>&A&T&p&s&&&&&'''4'7'U'q't''''''((0(3(V(r(u((((() )=)Y)\)))))* **:*=*Y*u*x********++7+S+V+k+++++++,,8,T,W,u,,,,,,!-=-@-g------- ..&.B.E.{...... /'/*/]/y/|/////0 0I0e0h000001 151Q1T1q111111122S2o2r222222235383`3|3333333341444\4x4{4444444455%5A5D5f5555555556,6/6e6666667"7%7D7`7c777777785888M8i8l8v888888899'9C9F9T9p9s99999999999&CCCDDD5EgEEFXFfFhFFFF G,G.GuGGGG H+HtHH&MIMUMOP!PLPPP[&\R\ΗINYs;l.Sdsz},anv    Q ]    \lKW;px  f   !~!!"W"e""#%#V###$m$y$o%%%&G&&'B'''C(m((())H)))))**B*R*n***+Y+c+x+!,H,r,,, -H-S-P///5F6a69C %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX _Toc133904696 _Toc133904697 _Toc133904698%Speaking_points_for_customer_benefits _Toc133904699 _Toc133904700 _Toc133904701 _Toc133904702 _Toc133904703Reduced_ice_dams _Toc133904704 _Toc133904705 _Toc133904706 _Toc133904707 _Toc133904708 _Toc133904709 _Toc133904710 _Toc133904711 _Toc133904712 _Toc133904713 _Toc133904714 _Toc133904715 _Toc133904716 _Toc133904717 _Toc133904718 _Toc133904719 _Toc133904720 _Toc133904721 _Toc133904722 _Toc133904723 _Toc133904724 _Toc133904725 _Toc133904726 _Toc133904727 _Toc133904728 _Toc133904729 _Toc133904730 _Toc133904731 _Toc133904732 _Toc133904733 _Toc133904734 _Toc133904735 _Toc133904736 _Toc133904737 _Toc133904738 _Toc133904739 _Toc133904740 _Toc133904741 _Toc133904742 _Toc133904743 _Toc133904744 _Toc133904745 _Toc133904746 _Toc133904747 _Toc133904748 _Toc133904749 _Toc133904750 _Toc133904751 _Toc133904752 _Toc133904753 _Toc133904754 _Toc133904755 _Toc133904756 _Toc133904757 _Toc133904758 _Toc133904759 _Toc133904760 _Toc133904761 _Toc133904762 _Toc133904763 _Toc133904764 _Toc133904765 _Toc133904766 _Toc133904767 _Toc133904768 _Toc133904769 _Toc133904770 _Toc133904771 _Toc133904772 _Toc133904773 _Toc133904774 _Toc133904775 _Toc133904776 _Toc133904777 _Toc133904778 _Toc133904779 _Toc133904780 _Toc133904781 _Toc133904782 _Toc133904783 _Toc133904784 _Toc133904785 _Toc133904786 _Toc133904787 _Toc133904788 _Toc133904789 _Toc133904790 _Toc133904791 _Toc133904792 _Toc133904793 _Toc133904794 _Toc133904795 _Toc133904796 _Toc133904797 _Toc133904798 _Toc133904799 _Toc133904800 _Toc133904801 _Toc133904802 _Toc133904803 _Toc133904804 _Toc133904805 _Toc133904806 _Toc133904807 _Toc133904808 _Toc133904809 _Toc133904810 _Toc133904811 _Toc133904812 _Toc133904813 _Toc133904814 _Toc133904815 _Toc133904816 _Toc133904817 _Toc133904818 _Toc133904819 _Toc133904820 _Toc133904821 _Toc133904822 _Toc133904823 _Toc133904824 _Toc133904825 _Toc133904826 _Toc133904827 _Toc133904828 _Toc133904829 _Toc133904830 _Toc133904831 _Toc133904832 _Toc133904833 _Toc133904834 _Toc133904835 _Toc133904836 _Toc133904837 _Toc133904838 _Toc133904839 _Toc133904840 _Toc133904841 _Toc133904842 _Toc133904843 _Toc133904844 _Toc133904845 _Toc133904846 _Toc133904847 _Toc133904848 _Toc133904849 _Toc133904850 _Toc133904851 _Toc133904852 _Toc133904853 _Toc133904854 _Toc133904855 _Toc133904856 _Toc133904857 _Toc133904858 _Toc133904859 _Toc133904860 _Toc133904861 _Toc133904862 _Toc133904863 _Toc133904864 _Toc133904865 _Toc133904866 _Toc133904867 _Toc133904868 _Toc133904869 _Toc133904870 _Toc133904871 _Toc133904872 _Toc133904873 _Toc133904874 _Toc133904875 _Toc133904876 _Toc133904877 _Toc133904878 _Toc133904879 _Toc133904880 _Toc133904881 _Toc133904882 Stack_effect _Toc133904883Moisture_and_air_flow_linkages _Toc133904884 _Toc133904885 _Toc133904886 _Toc133904887 _Toc133904888 _Toc133904889 _Toc133904890 _Toc133904891Mechanical_ventilation _Toc133904892 _Toc133904893 _Toc133904894 _Toc133904895 _Toc133904896 _Toc133904897 _Toc133904898 _Toc133904899 _Toc133904900 _Toc133904901 _Toc133904902 _Toc133904903Pressure_Diagnostics _Toc133904904 _Toc133904905 _Toc133904906 _Toc133904907Blower_door_testing _Toc133904908 _Toc133904909 _Toc133904910 _Toc133904911 _Toc133904912 _Toc133904913 _Toc133904914 _Toc133904915 _Toc133904916 _Toc133904917 _Toc133904918 _Toc133904919 _Toc133904920 _Toc133904921 _Toc133904922 _Toc133904923 _Toc133904924 _Toc133904925 _Toc133904926 _Toc133904927 _Toc133904928 _Toc133904929 _Toc133904930Using_Infrared _Toc133904931 _Toc133904932 _Toc133904933 _Toc133904934 _Toc133904935 _Toc133904936 _Toc133904937 _Toc133904938 _Toc133904939::::@BDDEEEG HHKKLNO#PTTaV[T\Z\9``cXg`kSlloooqwrrr!v)v#wpxvx{`~σ̄$ XWN-:\ƖЗۛo4'Ψ!ͭqisž ;A[w8=J yT0u )3= tCSY+HkL / V5~p_sC  _  M _ nteRz -- 0   !!g"}"'#####{$M%M%'& '' ((())*T**J,,U-i-x-//1 2P4X455U7Y7d8j9z99999  !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~ ::A:A:ACD*EEEEGHHKKMNO8PTTkV[Y\d\B``c`gek[lloooqrrr(v1v1wux~x{o~Á׃ӄ1cf\4DgŖߖڛB//æӨ'߭y:@W:v_I` -D (2<WG_93m2j~n.4 |Axrk    ^ u  s|,,CC/ W  !!"|""G####$$`%`%8&3'(4(((9)) *_**c,,h-w--@// 2;2W4455X7^78y999999EEYFfFFFH HTTUUUX^XXX[[\\J]S]Y]b]z]]^_R_[_``bbcccddddefeneeefff ggg4g@gAgIghhPjXjjj=oFoooppss*t2txxyy|||}}}~~~~NS<Euy|ljkt?Hr{$-ėΗ<G  OYu~2;s&"es:CS_`p Xf:Fv7@t"|"#%#**Z+c+,,,,////00R6a6999<<==DDHHJ"JMM-Q1Q_ReRpUUUUW?WXzX|XX YYYYY+ZZZZZ[[J]S]]]u_{_)`/`aaaabcccxe~eeeeeff4gWgiijj'jYj[jajjjjjj?kAkGk#l.lnno#oyqqhvnv2wwxxozyzzz&~.~6<Ԅ}Sɉ݉މH<&4@bh#*Ҭݬs}\dŮͮ2<\i ]d"@K/5hp2; hthp$"\`3GPxXb@DJYaILOUJZu22R6a6999333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333 & /+/]/}//// 0I0i0000 151U1q111112S2s22222393`333333454\4|4444445%5E5f555555606e66667&7D7d77777898M8m8v888889'9G9T9t9999999PP%%&&'' ,!,E6F69999jnicoudRP:\HUD\1501\004 Other\Research & Reports\Remodeling Protocols\Air Sealingdraft.doch`0D!3xΥPDPDPDPDPDPDPDPDPDPDPDPDPD8^`8CJOJQJhH= h^`hH ^`hH. 8^`hH.. ^`hH...  ^`hH ....  p^`hH .....   ^`hH ......  @ ^`hH.......   ^`hH........ OJQJ^J........ OJQJ^J OJQJ^J....... OJQJ^J OJQJ^J....... OJQJ^J OJQJ^J....... OJQJ^J OJQJ^J OJQJ^J...... OJQJ^J OJQJ^J....... OJQJ^J........ OJQJ^J........ OJQJ^J........ OJQJ^J........ OJQJ^J........ OJQJ^J........ OJQJ^J........D!3PDPDPDPDPDPDPDPDPDPDPDPDPDCallout Template HTML-List1 HTML-List2@&&0;& 90@UnknownGz Times New Roman5Symbol3& z Arial9 Webdings"q hݚfޚf]-'. 920=92QHX Air Sealing Improvement ProtocolGregory ThomasjnicoudOh+'0 $0 L X dpx!Air Sealing Improvement Protocolrosir Gregory Thomasrregreg Normal.dotmjnicoud4icMicrosoft Word 9.0m@Ik@H@́2H]-՜.+,D՜.+,\ hp  Performance Systems'= !Air Sealing Improvement Protocol Title* 8@ _PID_HLINKSA*h>,qD:\Task 4.2 - Draft Protocols\Air Sealing\Air Sealing v1 4-3 gt (2).doc - Attachments\IR of pipe penetration.JPGXc1http://irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/pubs/cbd/cbd104_e.html""/http://oikos.com/library/airsealing/index.htmlooWhttp://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=new_homes_features.hm_f_reduced_air_infiltration\ }D:\Task 4.2 - Draft Protocols\Air Sealing\Air Sealing v1 4-3 gt (2).doc - Attachments\EPA Home Sealing DIY_COLOR_100_dpi.pdf=Jhttp://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=home_sealing.hm_improvement_sealing*}~Ohttp://www.toolbase.org/tertiaryT.asp?TrackID=&CategoryID=1549&DocumentID=2299`={http://www.pathnet.org/ x)http://eere.energy.gov/EE/buildings.html.vuHhttp://www.homeenergy.org//archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/95/950309.html.|rHhttp://www.homeenergy.org//archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/95/951111.html7:ohttp://www.homeenergy.org/TLl_Desktop\PIER Protocols\Procedures\Inspecting the Thermal Boundary - Procedure CA 080604_CM.docDibDesktop\PIER Protocols\Procedures\Inspecting Combustion Appliance Zones - Procedure 080604_CM.doc&sf]Desktop\PIER Protocols\Procedures\Performing a Blower Door Test - Procedure CA 080604_CM.doc/|cHhttp://www.homeenergy.org//archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/94/940908.htmlAW`Ihttp://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/housingandclothing/DK7284.htmlFH]Bhttp://www.toolbase.org/techinv/techDetails.aspx?technologyID=202ZgZ1http://irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/pubs/cbd/cbd245_e.html(FW_http://www.state.mn.us/mn/externalDocs/Commerce/Indoor_Ventilation_110802042008_IndoorVent.pdf mTChttp://homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/00/000511.htmlKQ-http://epb1.lbl.gov/ventilation/program.htmlq`NGhttp://www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/94/940110.html K&http://hvac.bobvila.com/Video/41.html%~HThttp://www.eere.energy.gov/consumer/your_home/energy_audits/index.cfm/mytopic=11190/uEHhttp://www.homeenergy.org//archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/95/951108.htmlSB1http://www.epa.gov/asbestos/pubs/insulation.html!W?.http://irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/pubs/ctus/14_e.html(p<Hhttp://www.homeenergy.org//archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/93/930309.html^{9Mechanical_ventilation6Reduced_ice_dams^J3&http://www.epa.gov/radon/zonemap.htmlO05http://www.eere.energy.gov/weatherization/apply.html-%-,http://www.dsireusa.org/index.cfm?EE=0&RE=1*&Speaking_points_for_customer_benefitsHQ'^http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/publications/infosource/pub/renovate/airleakage/english/airleakage.pdfB"$Qhttp://www.energystar.gov/ia/home_improvement/home_sealing/DIY_COLOR_100_dpi.pdfK5!Jhttp://www.energystar.gov/ia/home_improvement/Home_Sealing_Brochure04.pdfS8\http://www.state.mn.us/mn/externalDocs/Commerce/Attic_Bypasses_110602012529_AtticBypass.pdfpHUsing_Infrared=Pressure_DiagnosticsDBBlower_door_testinghsyD:\Task 4.2 - Draft Protocols\Air Sealing\Air Sealing v1 4-3 gt (2).doc - Attachments\Caulking a foam board in place.JPG^BGhttp://www.cwc.ca/design/building_science/internal_barriers/caulks.phpv] Ghttp://www.energy.ca.gov/efficiency/qualityhomes/caulking_sealing.htmlTC tD:\Task 4.2 - Draft Protocols\Air Sealing\Air Sealing v1 4-3 gt (2).doc - Attachments\Southface air-seal poster.pdfS8\http://www.state.mn.us/mn/externalDocs/Commerce/Attic_Bypasses_110602012529_AtticBypass.pdf@LcD:\Task 4.2 - Draft Protocols\Air Sealing\Air Sealing v1 4-3 gt (2).doc - Attachments\pic18633.jpg)`Chttp://homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/94/940111.htmla!http://hes.lbl.gov/x :http://www.ornl.gov/sci/roofs+walls/articles/ice_dam.htmlQdLhttp://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=home_solutions.hm_improvement_icedamsx :http://www.ornl.gov/sci/roofs+walls/articles/ice_dam.htmlQdLhttp://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=home_solutions.hm_improvement_icedams Fhttp://www.toolbase.org/tertiaryT.asp?DocumentID=2298&CategoryID=1014 Fhttp://www.toolbase.org/tertiaryT.asp?DocumentID=2298&CategoryID=1014GZMoisture_and_air_flow_linkages? Stack_effectcIxpointer(/descendant-or-self::ap:Topic[@OId='JqhK11ROgEu0rGkFHmlO+Q=='])OVMC:\Documents and Settings\Gregory Thomas\My Documents\0docs\HUD\tempFile.bmp  !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~      !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~      !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnoqrstuvwxyz{|}~Root Entry FCfFHData  1Tablep5WordDocument"SummaryInformation(DocumentSummaryInformation8H,CompObjjObjectPoolCfFHCfFH  FMicrosoft Word Document MSWordDocWord.Document.89q